Labour Investigation Committee (1946)|
|Labour Investigation Committee (1946)|
|Appointment of Committee and its Terms of Reference|
|Method of Enquiry|
|Division of Work|
|Ad Hoc and Supplementary Questionnaires|
|Modification of Terms of Reference|
|Geographical Scope of Enquiry|
|Arrangement of the Report|
|Recommendations of the Royal Commission on Labour in India|
|Chapter I: Introduction|
|I. The Economic Background|
|II. A Bird's eye View of Industries|
|VIII: Age and Mortality Statistics|
|Chapter II: Labour Legislation and its Working|
|I. Some General Observations|
|II. Factory Legislation|
|III. Payment of Wages Act, 1936|
|IV. Workmen's Compensation Act|
|V.-Maternity Benefit Acts|
|VI. Plantation Legislation|
|VII. Mining Legislation|
|VIII. Transport Legislation|
|IX. Bombay Industrial Disputes Act, 1938|
|X. General Labour Legislation|
|XI. War-time Regulations|
|(i) Defence of India Rule, 81-A|
|(ii) National Service (Technical Personnel) Ordinance, 1940|
|(iii) Essential Services (Maintenance) Ordinance, 1941|
|Chapter III: Migration and Source of Labour Supply|
|II. Sources of Labour in Principal Industries|
|III. The Village Nexus|
|Chapter IV: Employment of Labour-I|
|IX. Labour Turnover|
|Chapter V: Employment of Labour-II|
|I. Standing Orders, Rules and Agreements|
|II. Service or Registration Cards|
|III. Grade and Incremental Promotions|
|IV. Holidays and Leave|
|V. Disciplinary Measures|
|VI. Certain Special features of Recruitment Promotions, etc,|
|VII. Machinery for* looking into Grievances of Workers|
|Chapter VI: Working Conditions|
|I. Hours, of Work|
|II. General Working Conditions|
|IV. Essential Facilities|
|Chapter VII: Wages and Earnings|
|I. Cotton Mills|
|II. Jute Mills|
|IV. Woolen Mills|
|V. Enginnering Industry|
|Chapter VIII: Wages and Earnings|
|I. Cement Industry|
|II. Match Industry|
|III. Paper Industry|
|IV. Bidi, Cigar and Cigarette Industries|
|V. Carpet Weaving Industry|
|VI. Coir Mats and Matting|
|IX. Printing Press|
|X. Glass Industry|
|XI. Chemical Industry|
|XII. Shellac Industry|
|XIV. Cotton Ginning and Baling|
|XV. Rice Mill Industry|
|XVII. Tramways and Buses|
|XIX. Manganese Mining|
|XX. Mineral Oil Industry|
|XXI. Gold Mining|
|XXII. Mica Mining and Manufacturing|
|XXIII. Iron ore Mining|
|XXIV. Salt Mining|
|XXV. Rickshaw Pullers|
|XXVI. Central Public Works Department|
|XXVIII. Port labour|
|XXIX. Standardisation of Wages|
|XXX. Cost of Living|
|Chapter IX: Indebtedness|
|I. Indebtedness in Certain Industries|
|II. Indebtedness in Certain Centres|
|Chapter X: Housing|
|I - Introductory|
|II.Housing of the Urban Worker|
|III. Housing in Factory Industries|
|IV. Housing on Plantations|
|V. Housing in the Mining Industries|
|Chapter XI: Welfare Activities|
|I. Scope of Welfare Work|
|II. Necessity of Welfare Work|
|III. The Problem of Agency|
|IV. Welfare Work by the Governments|
|V. Employers' Activities|
|VI. Trade Union's Work|
|VII. Special Aspects of Welfare|
|(iv) Medical Facilities|
|(v) Washing and Bathing Facilities|
|(vi) Provident Fund, Gratuities and Pensions|
|(vii) Educational Facilities|
|(viii) Other Facilities|
|Chapter XII: Conclusion|
|I. War and Indian Labour|
|Shortages of Fuel and Raw Materials|
|Effects on Standard of Living|
|Effects on Employment of Labour|
|Control of Industries|
|Effects on Working Conditions|
|II. Needs and Risks of Labour|
|Wage Structure and Wage Policy|
|Standardisation of Wages and Occupational Nomenclatures|
|Housing and Housing Policy|
|Security of Employment|
|Freedom of Association|
|Rest and Recreation|
|Risks of Insecurity|
|Old Age and Death|
|III. The Panorama of Labour Conditions and Labour Legislation|
|Labour in Cottage Industries|
|Child Labour in Industry|
|Efficiency of the Indian Worker|
|Apprenticeship and Training|
|The State and Employers' and Workers' Organisations in relation to Labour|
|IV. Labour and the Constitution|
|Appendix I: Memorandum|
|Appendix II: Questionnaire for AD HOC Surveys|
|Appendix III: Supplementary Questionnaires|
|Appendix IV: List I|
|Appendix V: Action taken on the Recommendations of the Royal Commission on Labour in India since 1938|
|Appendix VI: Extent of employment in various Industries|
|Appendix VII: Questionnaire regarding Migration|
|Appendix VIII: Badli Control System in Bombay|
Appendix VI: Extent of employment in various Industries
Extent of Employment in Various Industries.
Remarks to accompany the Employment Chart.
Figures given in the Chart refer to the total employment in
British India except where stated otherwise in the following notes. Employment figures for
Indian States wherever available are also given below:—
1. Coal.—Figures refer to British India only.
2. Manganese.—Besides those in British India, the
Indian States employed 3,554 workers in 1939 and 1,809 workers in 1943.
3. Gold-—Figures refer to Mysore State only and in
addition - 7,736 workers in 1939 and 6,358 in 1944 were employed by contractors but paid
by the Mining Companies. In British India 143 workers were employed in 1939 and 219 in
4. (a) Mica Mining.—Figures refer to British India
Only. In addition, 27,164 workers in 1939 and 52,170 in 1943 were employed on uparchallas
and in Indian States.
(b) Mica Manufacture.—Figures refer to whole of India
and are an estimate. The employment in Mica factories during 1939 was about 22,000 and
during 1943 it was about 45,000. The balance is made up by employment in the Domestic
5. Iron Ore.—Figures refer to British India alone.
Besides, the employment in Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Mysore States in 1944 was 1,500, 675
and 500 workers respectively.
6. Rock Salt.—The figures are for Khewra only.
7. Mineral Oil.—Figures refer to British India.
8. Tea.—Figures refer to whole of India and include
97,000 workers in 1942 employed by Indian States; separate figures of employment in Indian
States for 1939 are not available.
9. Coffee.—Figures refer to whole of India and include
63,050 workers employed by Indian States in 1943 and 58,281 in 1939.
10. Rubber.—Figures refer to whole of India and
include 32,125 workers employed by Indian States in 1942. These figures for 1939 were
11. Cotton.—Figures refer to whole of India. 12.
Jute.—Figures refer to British India only.
13. Silk.—The figures relate to British India only.
The employment in Indian States in 1939 was 4,386 and in 1943 it was 7,198 workers.
14. Woollen.—The employment in Indian States was 9,768
workers in 1939 about 3,800 in 1943. In addition the woollen carpet and Shawl weaving
establishments and the hosiery factories employed 3,382 and 264 persons respectively.
According to an estimate made there were also about a lakh of handlooms engaged in the
weaving of wool throughout the country.
15. Dockyards.—Figures refer to British India.
16. Engineering.—Figures refer to British India only.
17. Cement.—Figures relate to British India and
comprise cement lime and pottery factories together. Indian States employed 3,667 and
about 9,000 workers respectively during 1939 and 1943.
18. Matches.—Besides the British Indian figure the
Indian States employed 3,747 and 5,600 workers respectively during 1939 and 1943.
19. Paper.—Figures relate to British India ; and
during 1939 and 1943 the Indian States employed 887 and 1,100 workers respectively.
20. Carpet Weaving.—Figures relate to employment in
the four selected centres, namely, Mirzapur, Amritsar and Srinagar.
21 . Coir Matting.—Figures relating to Travancore and
Cochin States only and are an estimate.
22. Tanneries & Leather goods,—Figures relate only
to British India.
23. Potteries.—Figures relate to sampled units only at
Calcutta, Bangalore and Gwalior.
24. Printing Presses.—Figures refer only to British
25. Glass.—Figures refer to British India only. The
total estimated employment for all India is between 30,000 and 35,000. The excess of
employment over the figures given in the chart is made up by about 5,000 workers in Indian
States and the rest by unregulated factories and cottage shops in British India.
26. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works.—Figures refer
to British India.
27. Shellac.—The figure is an estimate for the whole
of India, This includes 510 workers in Indian States.
28. Tobacco.—The figure is a combined one for Bidi,
Cigar and Cigarette industries. The bidi industry is estimated to employ 500,000 persons
throughout India. The Cigar and Cigarette industries in India employed 3,300 and 12,121
workers respectively in 1943.
29. Sugar.—-Figures refer to British India.
30. Cotton Ginning and Balling,—Figures refer to
31. Rice Mills.—Figures refer to British India.
33. Transport Services.—Figures refer to British
India. The figures for buses represent an estimate only and are for 1944.
33. Railways.—Figures relate to all railway servants,
on all railways throughout the country.
34. Port Trusts.—Figures relate to five selected ports
35. Municipalities.—Figures relate to seven selected
centres only, namely, Bombay, Lahore, Madras, Calcutta, Nagpur, Cawnpore.
36. Central P. W. D.—An estimate.
37. Rickshaw Pullers.—Figures relate to selected