Labour Investigation Committee (1946)||
LABOUR INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
No. LIC-36, Simla, the 27th May 1944
The Labour Investigation Committee has been appointed by the Government of India by Resolution No. L4012, dated the 12th February 1944, which is as follows:—
"The Tripartite Labour Conference, at its meeting in September 1943;
unanimously passed the following resolution:—
"This Tripatite Labour Conference recommends that, with a view to provide adequate materials on which to plan a policy of social security for labour, the Central Government in cooperation with the Governments of Provinces of British India, Indian States and the Chamber of Princes should immediately set up machinery to investigate questions of wages and earnings, employment and housing and social conditions generally, and that as soon as possible after receipt of the required statistics and other data, the Central Government should appoint a mixed Committee to formulate plans of social security."
In pursuance of this resolution and in order that information may be collected bearing upon various aspects of social security, so as to enable the Planning Committee subsequently to be set up to draw up a programme of social security for labour in India, the Governor-General-in-Council is pleased to appoint a Committee of Enquiry to be known as Labour Investigation Committee. The Committee will be composed of:
(1) Mr. D. V. Rege, I. C. S. Chairman.
(2) Mr. S. R. Deshpande, M. B. E..
(3) Dr. Ahmad Mukhtar, Members.
(4) Mr. B. P. Adarkar,
and its terms of reference will be as follows:—
(a) to collect data relating inter alia to wages and earnings, employment, housing and social conditions of labour and in particular of industrial labour in India, and
(b) to investigate and report inter alia on the following matters:—
(1) the risks which bring about insecurity,
(2) the needs of labour, by various classes, to meet such risks,
(3) the methods most suitable for meeting such risks, and
(4) housing and factory conditions."
With a view to collecting factual and statistical data and obtaining the views of Governments, employers' and workers' associations and other institutions and persons, the accompanying General Questionnaire is issued. In replying to it, it is not necessary to answer all questions. The questionnaire has been divided into sections; you may select such Sections or questions as may be of interest to you and in regard to which
you are in a position to supply useful information. You may also submit special memoranda on any particular topic or topics covered by the terms of reference.
Replies to the Questionnaire, together with Memoranda, if any, may kindly be sent in typescript (five copies) as early as possible and in any case not later than the 31st July 1944 addressed to the Chairman, Labour Investigation Committee, Council Chamber, Simla.
You may also kindly indicate whether you would be prepared to tender oral evidence, if required by the Committee to do so.
In addition to the General Questionnaire, the Committee propose to issue a few special questionnaires in regard to industries which cannot be conveniently covered by this Questionnaire. The Committee also propose to collect information through Sample and Ad Hoc Surveys to be conducted in various industrial centres. In this connection, special Investigators may be approaching your Government/Association/Concern/ you, on behalf of the Committee. You are earnestly requested to render all possible assistance and co-operation to them in obtaining reliable information.
D. V. REGE, To Chairman, Labour Investigation Committee
1. Are you aware of any survey of labour conditions made in your Province or State by any public or private body or individual or of any printed material bearing upon labour conditions? If so, kindly give the name of the publication and the full address of the author and the source from which copies could be obtained.
2. What legislative measures for the regulation of labour conditions
are, in your opinion, of fundamental importance as a condition precedent to the formulation of a Social Security programme"? In what respects, if any does the existing legal administrative structure require to be improved?
3. What are the various Labour Acts in force in your Province or State?
SECTION II—EXISTING LABOUR LEGISLATION
(A)- Factories Act
4. Are the provisions of the Factories Act and Rules made there under being strictly enforced? If not, please state the extent to which evasion or violation is taking place in respect of any provisions and the methods or means of such evasion or violation. What machinery exists for enforcing the Act? Is the Inspectorate adequate?
5. State the nature and extent of evils that exist in establishments which are not subject to the Factories Act. Would you advocate the extension of any part or the whole of the Act to such establishments, or would you prefer the enactment of a separate measure to deal with them? Can any such legislative measure be successfully enforced?
6. Apart from exemptions granted as a war-time measure, have you any observations to make on the exemptions granted by Governments in respect of certain provisions of the Factories Act?
7. Have you any suggestions to make for improving the Factories Act or its administrative machinery? If so, please mention them, giving reasons.
(B) Payment of Wages Act
8. Are the provisions of the Payment of Wages Act and Rules made there under being strictly enforced? If not, please state the extent to which evasion or violation is taking place in respect of any provisions and the methods or means of such evasion or violation. Are there any inherent difficulties in the enforcement of the Act?
9. In particular, how does the Act work in relation to (a) contract labour (b) badli labour?
10. Do you think that the wage limit prescribed by the Act in Section I (6) requires to be altered?
11 Would you advocate the extension of the Payment of Wages Act to any industry not at present covered by it, and, if so, why?
12. If you are not satisfied with the present working of the Act, what improvements in the Act or Rules or in the Administrative machinery would you suggest?
13. Are any deductions from the earnings of the workers made by the
employer which are not capable of being prevented by the existing provisions of the Act or Rules?
(C) Workmen's Compensation Act
14. Are you satisfied with the working of the Workmen's Compensation Act? If not, please state how it can be improved?
15. What difficulties are experienced by different types of workers (contract, badli, etc.) in your Province or State, in securing compensation? Is part payment made before the claim is finally settled? Are they aware of their own rights under the Act? If not, are any steps being taken to educate them in this regard?
16. (i) What procedure is followed by you for—
(a) reporting accidents occurring in your concern?
(b) payment of compensation when it is due?
(2) Are there any complaints on the part of operatives regarding delays on payment of compensation?
17. What agencies are available to render legal or other assistance to workers in securing compensation due to them?
18. To what extent do employers insure against accidents with insurance companies? Are you in favour of compulsory insurance by all employers against accidents with insurance companies?
19. Are you in favour of extending Schedule III of the Act which enumerates the occupational diseases entitling workers to compensation? In this connection, state as to which of the occupational diseases mentioned in Appendix I to this questionnaire are, to your knowledge, prevalent in your Province, State, industry or concern.
20. Have you any suggestions to make regarding (a) scale of compensation, (b) conditions governing grant of compensation, (c) machinery of administration, (d)- extension of the Act to industries not covered by it at present, (e) any other matters.
21. What medical assistance is available to the injured worker in your
establishment? Is it free? What are the qualifications of the medical officer-in-charge?
(D) Maternity Benefit Act
22. Apart from any legislative enactment, is maternity benefit provided under any special agreement between employers and workers, or at the discretion of the management?
23. Where a Maternity Benefit Act is applicable, has it resulted in a diminution of the employment of women workers?
24. How successful has the Act been in its intention? Do women workers experience difficulties in obtaining benefit? If so, what are they?
25. Are female workers discharged or threatened with discharge by employers in order to avoid payment under the Act?
26. Are the cash benefits payable and the period for which they are payable adequate? How is the payment made?
27. Are there any arrangements in your concern for the treatment of" maternity cases including pre-natal and post-natal care? Are these arrangements available to your workers' wives and other female dependants not working in your concern?
28. What improvements, if any, in the Act would you suggest?
SECTION III—WAGES AND EARNINGS
29. What are the basic wage rates for different types of workers, for time and piece work respectively, in you industry or establishment? Can you supply information regarding the changes that have taken place in these rates since 1938? What changes, in particular, have taken place since the commencement of the war?
30. Please describe the principles underlying the fixation of basic wages of the worker in your establishment or industry.
31. In addition to the basic wages, what allowances, bonuses, etc., are paid? Please give full details stating which of these are temporary and which permanent in nature and on what conditions such allowances or bonuses are given. Are any attempts made to evade payment of these allowances and bonuses?
32. Are there any allowances or bonuses which have owing to lapse of time become part and parcel of the basic wages and are not subject to fluctuation from time to time? If so, give full particulars.
33. In addition to wages in cash, are there any payments in kind made to or any concessions or benefits conferred upon the worker by the employer at his discretion or otherwise?
34. How do you calculate overtime pay in the case of time work,, piece work, or combination of time and piece work. Do you maintain any registers for recording overtime pay? Are they available to the workers or their representatives for inspection?
35. (a) Are wages paid directly to the worker or through agents such as jobbers, mistries, mukkaddams, sardars or contractors?
(b) How do wages paid by your contractors compare with those paid by you for similar work in your establishment?
36. Are workers dismissed and re-employed on lower scales of pay because permissible deductions under the Payment of Wages Act are not considered adequate?
37. (a) In the same department and occupation and for the same type of work, do differential rates of wages exist?
(b) Are different wage rates paid to permanent and temporary workers and to men and women doing the same or similar work?
38. What are the periods of wage payment in your Province, State or establishment? Are you in favour of weekly, fortnightly or monthly payment of wages? What is the time elapsing between the day on which wages become due and the day of actual payment?
39. Have any efforts been made to standardise the wage rates? If so, kindly supply full details of the scheme evolved. What, in your, view, are the main difficulties in standardising the wage rates?
40. (a) What attempts at rationalization by way of efficiency schemes have been made in your industry? Please give details.
(b) What are the effects of such schemes on—
(i) total employment in the concern,
(ii) employment in particular occupations, (iii) wage rates, (iv) earnings, (v) production, and (vi) working conditions, especially strain and fatigue.
(c) In what proportion are the gains resulting from these schemes passed on to workers?
41. State the total number of workers employed by you in you establishment on the 1st January, 1939, and 1st January, 1944, or at least on the latter date, classified as under:—
(a) Supervisory staff,
(c) Workers employed and paid directly by establishment (men, women and children),
(d) Workers employed by contractors and paid by establishment (men, women and children),
(e) Workers employed as well as paid by contractors (men, women and children).
42. If you have any statistical information regarding the length of service of operatives in your concern, please give it in the following form: those between 0 and 1 year of service, those between 1 and 5 years of service, those between 5 and 10 years of service, and those over 10 years of service.
43. Are there any Standing Orders, Rules or agreements prevalent in your Province, State or concern, governing the day-to-day relationship between employer and workers? If so, please supply a copy.
44. Are your workers classified as permanent, temporary, badli or casual? Give the percentage in each category and explain the rights and privileges of each category of workers. How are temporary, badli and casual workers put on the permanent list, if at all? Have you any definite rules? If so, please supply copies of the same.
45. Do you recruit you labour direct? If not, what is the agency for recruitment of labour? To what extent is labour recruited through jobbers, contractors and sub-contractors, or any other agency? Explain your recruitment system fully and give your reasons for your preference for it over other alternatives. If the present system of recruitment is defective, would you- advocate the establishment of employment exchanges?
46. Do you maintain service or registration cards for all or some of your workers? If so, please send a specimen copy.
F.N. 31—2 M of Lab./56.
47. State the labour turnover in your establishment for the years 1938 and 1943, or any recent years in the tabulated form below:—
|Average daily number of workers employed during the month or year||Total number of workers who left during the month or year|
48. Point out the reasons for the labour turnover and suggest measures for reducing it. Is the turnover greater during some months than in others? If so, why?
49. Do you maintain figures of absenteeism? If so, on what basis is absenteeism calculated? Please supply figures of absenteeism in your establishment during the years 1938 and I1943. Is absenteeism greater in night shifts than in day shifts? Is it greater in some months than in others? Is it greater immediately after the pay day or on festival days? Discuss the various causes of absenteeism and the remedies, necessary for its reduction.
50. Have you any provision for the training of apprentices? How many of them have had preliminary education? Please supply a copy of the rules, if any, and state the following particulars:—
(a) Total number of apprentices engaged during the period 1938—43
(b) Total number of those who qualified and are now working in your establishment.
(c) Total number of those who left after qualifying themselves.
(d) Total number of those who could not or did not qualify.
51. Do you have any system of incremental or graded promotion in your establishment? If so, please describe it. Do you think that such a system is in the interests of industry?
52. Do you give any holidays with pay to workers, skilled and unskilled? If so, please supply details.
53. Have you any system of leave with or without pay for your workers? What is the proportion of workers who are entitled to such leave? If you have any leave rules, please supply a copy.
54. Are workers suspended or sent on compulsory or forced leave as a disciplinary measure? If so please give the number of such cases in 1943
55. (a) Do you impose fines as a disciplinary measure? How is the fines fund administered and utilized? Please state the specific items and the account of money spent on each as also the outstanding balance in the fund on 1-1-1944.
(b) Are you satisfied with the present administration and utilization of the fund. If not, what improvements would you suggest?
56. Have you a Labour Officer to enquire into the grievances of workers? If not have you any machinery for enquiring into this matter and into complaints against the supervisory staff?
57. Is any class of workers eligible to special benefits in regard to recruitment, starting pay, promotion, training or other matters? If so, please give details and also the reasons therefor.
SECTION V—WORKING CONDITIONS
Note.—Wherever possible, please supply information relating to the pre-war and present day conditions.
58. What are you hours of work? State under the following heads:—
(a) normal, i.e., as determined by custom, agreement, or law; (b) actual, i.e., including overtime; (c) spreadover, i. e., the relation between hours worked and hours during which worker is on call; and (d) days worked per week.
59. What have been the effects of restriction of working hours as enforced by the Factories Act on (a) the efficiency of the workers, and (b) on production. Will a further reduction of working hours result in increasing, maintaining or decreasing the present production?
60. How many and what kinds of shifts (single, double, multiple, or overlapping) do you work? Specify the hours of work, the rest intervals and the weekly days of rest for each shift of workers. If you work overlapping shifts, what are you special reasons for doing so?
61. Are you in favour of working night shifts in normal times? What are the effects of night shift working on—
(a) the health of the workers,
62. If your establishment is a continuous-process factory, what arrangements are made for rest days and at what intervals are these rest days given?
63. Have you taken any special measures for prevention of accidents, or for protecting the worker from dust, heat, glare, etc., apart from those prescribed by the Factories Act?
64. Is an adequate number of (a) latrines and (b) urinals provided for males and females separately? Describe their structure and their proportion to the total number of workers. Are they provided with doors?
65. Is the arrangement for drinking water adequate? Is cool water supplied during summer? Are any other drinks supplied free of charge?
66. Are any shelters provided for workers for taking meals or for use during intervals of rest? If so, are separate shelters provided for males and females?
67. Is there any housing scheme for workers provided in your area or industrial centre by the State, public bodies or by the employer? What proportion of the workers is covered by it? Please give full details of the scheme, and supply any printed material, photographs, or plans relating thereto, if possible.
68. State the following particulars:—
(a) the nature of accommodation, whether one-room, two-room, etc., tenements, whether with or without verandah, whether in lines, back-to-back or independent;
(b) Measurement of the accommodation, and the total number of persons (adult males, adult females and children under 10) staying there;
(c) the rent charged for each type of accommodation;
(d) the structure of the tenement, the material used, and the type of floors (whether cemented, brickpaved or kacha);
(e) structure, dimensions and privacy in the case of bath rooms, if any? Are separate bath rooms provided for females?
(f) provision for ventilation, lighting, water-supply, etc.;
(g) number of lavatories and urinals provided and their proportion to the number of people living in the quarters, their distance from the quarters, whether separate for men and women, etc.
69. How far are the workmen's quarters situated from their place of work? Is any conveyance provided for the workers to and fro? What are the charges, if any, for this?
70. Are there any market, post-office and other similar convenience available near the quarters?
71. How is allotment made? How do you deal with the problems of (a) sub-letting, (b) occupation of quarters by workers in the employ of others, (c) eviction?
72. Are there any facilities for workers to build their own houses? Have you any land for workers to build houses at their own cost? Have you ever encouraged them to build houses on a long lease? Have the workers started any co-operative society of their own and, if so with what results?
73. How far have the employers availed themselves of the Land Acquisition Act to acquire land compulsorily to house their labour?
74. To what extent do workers live in bastis, ahatas, chawls, etc. owned by private landlords, sardars or contractors? Please describe the conditions in some of them.
75. To what extent do workers live in their own houses whether built or purchased by them? How do these houses compare with those provided by other agencies?
76. What is your housing policy in respect of labour? Have you any programme for building quarters for them in the near future? If so, please describe your plans. In allotting accommodation, are the workers' caste, creed, race or affiliation to a trade union.-etc., taken into consideration? Do the workers enjoy ordinary rights of tenancy in these houses?
77. What, in your opinion, should be the housing policy of the country in respect of labour? Who should be held responsible for provision of housing—Government, employers, municipalities or workers themselves organized on co-operative lines or any combination of them?
78. Have you any special views on the question of financing housing schemes for industrial workers?
79. What is the minimum amount of housing accommodation which a worker, in your opinion, should have?
80. What proportion of the labour force in your area or concern is permanently settled and what proportion is migratory.
81. Mention the areas from which the workers are chiefly drawn? Do the workers who come from outside return to their villages occasionally or only during holidays?
82. Is there any seasonal migration of the workers for agricultural operations, etc.?
83. Do you think that a stabilised labour force is desirable in the interests of industry. If so, what steps should be taken to achieve this object?
84. Is there much migration of workers between factories in the same or different areas?
85. Are the workers in your Province, State, area or establishment indebted? If so, can you give some idea of the extent of indebtedness?
86. What are the predominant causes of indebtedness?
87. Who are the moneylenders and what rates of interest do they charge? What are their methods of lending and recovering the principal?
88. Have you got any law relating to indebtedness of industrial workers? If so, please state how far it has helped them.
89. What remedies have been devised by either Governments or employers or workers themselves for relief, prevention and reduction of indebtedness? How far have they been successful? What further remedies have you to suggest, if any?
SECTION IX—AGE AND MORTALITY STATISTICS
90. Do you maintain any record of age statistics. If so, please supply information in the following form:
Those who have completed (a) but not completed (b)
No. of Male Workers
No. of Female workers
91. What is the most common age at which workers enter employment in your establishment or area? At what age do they mostly retire from employment? Do many workers have to work in spite of old age or invalidity?
92. Have you collected any figures showing the mortality and expectation of life of workers in your industry, factory or area? If so, please supply the same.
93. What is the extent of reliability of the age records maintained by you? When doctors certify the age of children employed in your area, is there a tendency to overestimate the age?
SECTION X—WELFARE ACTIVITIES
94. Please describe the nature and extent of welfare work amongst workers done in your Province, State, area or establishment by Government, employers or other agencies. The information may kindly be supplied under the following heads:—
(a) Canteens—their working, kind of food provided, percentage of workers who benefit, their degree of popularity, etc.
(b) Creches—Number of children provided for, the supervisory staff employed and their qualifications. What attempts have been made to popularise the creche among women workers?
(c) Entertainment—cinema shows, radio sets, sports, etc.
(d) Medical attendance in factories and houses, provision of maternity and child welfare, etc.
(e) Washing and bathing facilities.
(f) Any other facilities.
95. What are the effects, of such welfare work on the worker' his attendance at factory, his standard of life and industrial efficiency, his habits and absenteeism?
96. What are the facilities available for (a) education of the workers' children, (b) education of adult workers and (c) industrial and vocational training? What are the practical results achieved therefrom?
97. Have you any statistical information about literacy among industrial workers? If so, please supply it.
SECTION XI—SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES
98. What, in your view, are the various risks of insecurity arising in the case of industrial labour, against which provision should be made in a social security programme?
99. What particular classes of labour are exposed to such risks and to what extent?
100 Which of the various security measures, such as health insurance, unemployment insurance, invalidity, pensions, old age pensions, widows' and orphans' pensions, industrial life insurance, maternity insurance, etc., do you consider of paramount importance in the case of Indian workers? Which of them need prior attention? Which of them do you regard within the range of practicability?
101. What special difficulties do you foresee in the way of the introduction of social security measures for workers in India? How would you overcome those difficulties?
102. Do you consider that a programme of social security for industrial workers in India is unattainable on grounds of finance?
103. To what extent does insecurity of employment prevail? What are its causes? What measures would you suggest for remedying it?
104. Give, if possible, an estimate of labour and staff reductions likely to take place in your establishment immediately following the end of the present war.
105. To what extent can the displaced labour be absorbed in alternative occupations?
106. What, in your view, should be the features of a scheme of Unemployment Insurance designed for workers who are already employed and who may later be thrown out of employment? What ancillary measures, if any, would you suggest?
107. Are you in favour of making (a) Compensation for accident or occupational disease, (b) maternity benefit as part of Social Insurance programme instead of continuing them as a liability on the employer? Please give reasons for your views.
108. Is there a Provident Fund, Gratuity Fund or Pensions Fund for skilled and/or unskilled workers in your establishment? If so, kindly supply a copy of the Rules.
109. In particular, state whether the Fund is registered, when it was started, whether it is open to all workers or only to some, what are the respective contributions of employer and workers, the number of workers covered, the amount of the fund, investments made, whether the accumulation to the credit of worker is attachable or alienable under any circumstances, etc.
110. Consider the feasibility of Old Age Pensions, Industrial Life Insurance, Compulsory Provident Funds, or a combination of any of these to deal with the problem of provision for the worker's future.
111. Do you think that separate social security programmes are necessary for industrial, semi-industrial and agricultural labour? If so, please make detailed suggestions.
1. Give the number of cases of the diseases in the attached list (shown separately under each disease) which occurred in 1940, 1941 and 1943 in your concern.
2- Where possible, give the total number of workers exposed to the risk of contracting each particular disease.
Description of Disease
Description of Process
Handling of wool, hair, bristles, hides and skins.
|2. Lead poisoning or its sequelae||Any process involving the use of lead
or its preparations or compounds.
Handling of lead or its preparation or compounds.
|3. Mercury poisoning or its sequelae||Any process involving the use of mercury or its preparations or compounds.|
|4. Phosphorus poisoning or its sequelae.;||Any process involving the use- of phosphorus or its preparations or compounds.|
|5. Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae||Any process involving the use of arsenic
or its preparations or compounds.
Handling of arsenic or its preparations or compounds.
|6. Poisoning by nitro-and amidoderivatives of benezene and its homologues (trinitrotoluene, anilin, and others), or the sequelae.||Handling any nitro-or amidoderivative of benezene or any of its homologues or any process in the manufacture or involving the use thereof.|
|7. Poisoning by benezene and its homologues, or the sequelae.||Handling benzene or any of its homologues, or any process in the manufacture or involving the use thereof.|
|8. Poisoning by dinitrophenol or its
|Handling dinitorphenol, or any process in the manufacture or involving the use thereof.|
|9. Poisoning by carbon bisulphide or its sequelae.||Any process involving the use of carbon bisulphide or its preparations or compounds.|
|10. Poisoning by nitrous fumes or its sequelae.||Any process in which nitrous fumes are evolved.|
|11. Chrome ulceration or its sequelae .||Any process involving the use of chromic acid, bichromate of ammonium) potassium, or sodium, or their preparations.|
|12. Compressed air illness or its sequelae||Any process carried on in compressed air.|
|13. Ulceration of the corneal surface of the eye, due to tar, pitch, bitumen, mineral, oil, or paraffin or any compound, product, or residue of any of these substances.||Handling or use of tar, pitch, bitumen, mineral oil, or paraffin, or any compound, product, or residue, of any of these, substances.|
|14. Epitheliomatous cancer or ulceration of the skin due to tar, pitch, bitumen, mineral oil, or paraffin, or any compound, products, or residue of any of these substances.||Handling or use of tar, pitch bitumen,mineral, oil, or paraffin or any compound, product, or residue of these substances.|
Description of Disease
Description of Process
|15||Dermatits products by dust or liquids.|
|16.||Ulceration of the skin product by dust or liquids.|
|17.||The disease known as miner's nystagnus, whether occurring in miners or others, and whether the the symptom of oscillation of the eye balls be present or not.||Mining.|
|18.||Subcutaneous cellulitis of the hand (beat hand).||Mining.|
|19.||Subcutaneous cellulitis or acute bursitis arising at or about the knee (beat knee).|
|20.||Subcutaneous cellulitis or acute bursitis over the elbow (beat elbow).||Mining.|
|21.||Inflammation of the synovial linin of the wrist joint and tendon sheaths.||Mining.|
|22.||Cataract in glassworkers||Process in the manufacture of glass involving exposure to the glare of molten glass.|
|.23.||Telegraphic's cramp||Use of telegraphic instruments.|
|25||Cataract caused by exposure to rays from molten or red-hot
|Any process normally involving exposure to rays from molten or red-hot metal including reheating and rolling iron in the manufacture of iron or steel.|
|26.||Twister's cramp caused by twisting of cotton or woollen (including worsted) yarns.|
|27||Manganese poisoning||Handling of manganese or substance containing manganese.|
|28.||A localiped new growth of the skin, papillomatous or keratotic, due to mineral oil.||Cotton spinning by means of self-acting mules.|
Name of concern......................
Name of Proprietor or Managing Agent..............
Date of Establishment............................
I. State the average daily number of workers (other than the clerical staff) employed in August 1939 and in January 1944, or at date of enquiry as follows;—
(a) Total number of workers .........................
(b) Number of piece-rate workers ..................
(c) Number of time-rate or salaried workers ..........
|(i) Employed and paid directly|
|(ii) Employed and paid through|
|(iii) Employed through con|
|tractors but paid directly.|
2. If you have any statistical information regarding the length of service of operatives in your concern, please give it in the following form:—
those between 0 & 1 year of service,
those between 1 & 5 years of service,
those between 5 & 10 years of service, and
those over 10 years of service.
3. Are your workers classified as permanent and temporary? Give the percentage in each category and describe the privileges of each type of workers.
4 State the system of apprenticeship for ordinary and supervisory posts and terms, if any.
Is the apprenticeship period counted towards total service?
5 Is there any system of graded or time-scale promotion? If so give details.
6. State the labour turnover in your concern for the years 1939 and 1943 or any recent years in the form below:—
|Average daily number of workers employed during the month or year||Total number of workers who left during the month or year|
What are the reasons for the labour turnover, if any? Suggest measures for reducing it.
7. Supply figures of absenteeism in your concern for the years 1939 and 1943, What are the causes of absenteeism and how would you reduce-it?
8. Are there any Standing Orders governing the relationships of employers and employees? Please supply a copy of the same, if possible.
9. (a) How do you recruit labour? Explain the system of recruitment fully.
(b) Have you a Labour Officer to enquire into the grievances of workers? If not, what other machinery have you set up for this purpose?
B. Wages and Earnings
10. What are the wage-rates for different types of workers? What changes have occurred in basic wages, salaried and piece (exclusive of allowances, etc.) since August 1939?
Does contract labour receive the same rates of wages as labour directly employed in the same or similar occupations?
11. Please describe in- brief the principles determining the fixation of your wage rates for all classes of employees.
12. Please give details of clearness and other allowances, bonuses and gratuities paid to workers since the outbreak of the War and state which of these is temporary and which is permanent. Are any conditions attached to the payment of these allowances?
13. Give details of the wages and earnings of workers who have worked the same number of days in the wage period from...... to........in the form attached at the end of this Questionnaire.
14. How is overtime calculated and paid for? Is overtime work compulsory? Do you maintain any registers for recording overtime? Are these available to the workers or their representatives for inspection?
15. What deductions are made from wages?
16. Is there a Fine Fund? What is the amount outstanding in it and how is it utilised? Who is in charge of its disposal?
17. What are the periods of wage payment for different kinds of workers? How long after the end of the wage-period are wages paid?
18. Are there any regular closed days in the month in your concern? What holidays (other than for festivals, etc.) are given to workers?
C. Working Conditions
19. How many shifts are worked in your concern? What is the number of hours of work in each shift and the times of commencement and ending? What is the total spread-over, i.e., the relation between hours worked and hours during which workers is on call?
20. If any multiple or overlapping shifts are worked, describe their arrangement.
21. State the conditions of ventilation, lighting (natural and artificial), congestion (i.e., floor area per worker), flooring protection against heat, etc.
22. Are shelters provided for employees during rest intervals? Give their dimensions, structural details, seating arrangements, etc.
D. Welfare Activities
23. Give an account of sanitary arrangements, water supply, latrines, urinals, washing and bathing facilities, etc. and their distances from the concern. Is cool water supplied in summer?
24. Is there any dispensary or hospital for workers and their families? If so, state the number of cases treated every day, prevalent diseases, qualifications of doctors in charge, their emoluments, etc. What is the system of medicine? Can any of the diseases workers suffer from be called occupational in character? Is there any periodical medical examination of workers?
25. Is any canteen provided or arrangements made for tea, cold drinks, light refreshments, etc.? Who runs them and how are profits if any, utilised? Describe conditions of contract, if any, and compare sale prices of articles supplied with market prices.
26. Do you maintain a creche for the benefit of your women workers?
27. What are the facilities available for the education of adult workers and their children?
28. Is there a grain shop for workers? What are the commodities supplied and how do their prices compare with market prices?
E. Housing Accommodation
29. Give details of housing provided by the Employer with reference to:-
(a) Proportion of workers housed,
(c) Types of houses,
(e) Sub-letting, and
(f) Sanitation and water supply.
30. If workers live in their own houses or in houses provided by private landlords or public bodies, state their condition carefully.
F. Trade Unions and Strikes
31. Have workers formed any trade union? State membership, monthly subscriptions, etc. Has there been any agreement regarding wages, hours of work, employment, dismissal, etc. Please supply a copy of agreement, if any.
32. Is there any works committee? Give its constitution and an account of its activities.
33. Give details of strikes in your concern during the last fifteen years. What were the causes of such strikes and how were they settled? How far were the demands of the strikers satisfied?
G. Safety Acts etc.
34. Does the concern come under the Factories Act? If so, are the provisions of the Factories Act complied with? Give dates of visits of Factory Inspectors during the past ten years and extracts from the remarks in the Factory Inspection Book.
35. Are the provisions of the following Acts observed in your concern—
(1) Electricity Act,
(2) Payment of Wages Act,
(3) Workmen's Compensation Act, and
(4) Maternity Benefit Act.
What action have you taken to acquaint your staff with the provisions of these Acts?
36. Give the number and nature of cases of occupational diseases reported in the last 10 years. Is there any provisions of medical facilities for the treatment of occupational diseases?
37. State the number of accidents which occurred in 1943. Was any compensation paid? If so, how much and in how many cases?
38. Are the workers indebted? Give an idea of the extent of their indebtedness and the causes responsible for the same.
39. What is the usual rate of interest charged from the workers? What remedial measures have been enforced by the Government to reduce this indebtedness? How far have they been successful?
40. Please supply a copy of the Provident Fund rules, if any, especially in reference to:—
(c) Rate of interest,
(d) Investment, and
(e) Conditions of claims on employer's contributions.
41. Give details of pension schemes and gratuities, if any. Please supply a copy of the rules.
Click here to see WAGE FORM FOR AD HOC SURVEYS
1 State if the factory is perennial or seasonal.
2. While answering question 1 in Part I of this questionnaire, state separately the number of children below 15 years and adolescents between 15 and 17 years employed in the factory.
3. Does this factory grow any sugarcane on land owned by it if so, state the number of persons employed by it on land. How many of these obtain employment in the factory during the season?
4. What is the proportion of seasonal workers who are agriculturists?
5. What is the average duration of employment of seasonal workers in the whole year?
6. Is any register of employees maintained? If so, is any preference given to persons who had been in employment in previous seasons?
7. Is any travelling allowance paid to seasonal workers at the commencement or at the termination of working season? State the amount paid and the conditions attached thereto.
8. State the total number of working days in the crushing season. What are the months of active working?
9. If the factory is perennial, state the nature of its products during the out of season months.
10. How are engineers, chemists and other permanent employees kept engaged during the slack season?
11. Is it possible to extend the period of crushing? What are the
difficulties in doing so? Can you suggest possible remedies?
12. How are molasses and bagasse disposed of?
Tanneries and Leather goods factories
1. What is the proportion of seasonal workers who are agriculturists?
2. Describe the arrangements that are made for the disposal of affluent. How often is it drained out in a week? Is it drained out through a pucca or a kachcha drain? And, is it led into any public drain, river or adjoining area.
Buses and Trams
Note.—While answering Part I of this Questionnaire, please give figures separately for the Engineering, Transportation, Commercial and Allied Departments.
1. What special effects, if any, have buses and trams on the health of the drivers and conductors?
2. In transport concerns, where shift system does not prevail, state the average number of hours worked by employees on running duties and the 'spread-over' of working hours.
3. Do wages differ according to the size and/or type of vehicles in charge of drivers and conductors or according to routes covered by them? If so, please give details.
4. Do any of the employees earn bonus for 'accident free' driving? Are any penalties imposed on them for unpunctual running? Please give details of bonuses earned and penalties imposed since January 1944.
5. What arrangements are made for intervals, of rest and weekly holidays in respect of different classes of workers? Are they working satisfactorily?
6. What boarding and lodging arrangements are available for staff on running duties when out of station?
7. Are any concessional passes, uniforms, etc., provided for the employees?
1. Has there been any case of lead poisoning in the press? Give details, if possible, and compensation claims paid during the last ten years. How are cases of suspected lead poisoning treated?
2. Would you consider the gradual loss of eyesight as an occupational disease in the case of some of the Press Workers? Give reasons for your views in the matter.
3. Would you suggest a six monthly compulsory medical examination of workers in printing presses?
Note.—Question No. I in Part I of this questionnaire need not be answered in respect of carpet factories. In its place questions 2 and 3 in this part may be answered.
1. How has the War affected the factory in respect of:—
(a) regularity of employment of labour,
(b) supply of labour,
(c) availability of wool and dyes.
2. State the average daily number of workers, (other than the clerical staff) employed in August 1939 and in January 1944 or date of enquiry as follows:—
(a) Number of workers above 17 years of age.
(b) Number of workers between 15 and 17 years.
(c) Number of workers between 12 and 15 years.
(d) Number of workers under 12 years.
(e) Total number of piece-rate workers.
(f) Total number of time-rate workers.
Note.—Figures for males and females should be given separately in each case.
3. Please state the number of workers employed in the same period in the following form:—
(a) Number of workers (of all ages) employed and paid directly by the factory.
(b) Number of workers (of all ages) employed and paid by master-weavers.
(c) Number of workers (of all ages) employed by master-weavers but paid by the factory.
(d) Number of workers (of all ages) employed by the factory but paid by the master-weavers.
4. Are there any particular difficulties in the way of direct employment and payment of weavers by the management? Have any attempts been made in this direction? If so, with what results?
5. What are the particular advantages of the system of recruitment and payment of weavers by master-weavers?
6 What is the basis of payment to (a) master-weavers, (b) weavers employed by master-weavers and (c) weavers employed directly? What changes have taken place in these rates since August 1939?
7. What deductions are made from wages? In particular, mention the extent to which deductions are made on account of fines and spoiled material.
8. Are there any workers whose wages are not paid to them by the employers or weaving masters, but to their parents or guardians or any middlemen? If so, what are the reasons for this. Is this system open to any abuse?
9. Is any work done at night? If so, describe the lighting arrangements and hours of night work.
10. Describe the posture in which weaving is done. Do you consider it comfortable or injurious to health? Is any improvement possible?
11. Is there any evidence that corporal punishment is meted out sometimes to workers by master-weavers or employers?
12. State in detail the operation of any law, local provincial or central, that applies to the factory
1.3. Is there any evidence to show that some weavers are contracted out by master-weavers against loan of money paid to them or their guardians?
(I) Mica, and (II) Iron Ore
I. What are the functions of the recruiting Sirdars? Are you in favour of retaining the system?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the system of employing raising contractors? Should the system be continued or abolished?"
3. If you have raising contractors, what is the rate per ton or per tub paid to them and the rate per ton or per tub paid by them to the cutters?
4. Are wages paid directly to workers or through gangmen, Sirdars or raising contractors? In the latter case do they charge any commission and, if so, from whom?
5. How do wages of contract labour compare with the wages of those employed direct?
F.N. 32—2 M. of Lab./56.
6. What are the various benefits in kind paid to the worker in addition to his cash wages? If possible, please evaluate them in terms of money.
7. What is the method of calculating the production of the miners for calculating their wages?
8. Are there any complaints in your mine regarding under or over payment for the production of the miners as a result of manipulation of accounts by the staff concerned? If so, what steps have been taken to deal with these complaints?
9. Do you consider that the earnings of the miners are adequate keeping in view the risks and difficulties of their occupation? If not, what measures would you suggest to increase them?
10. What are your views regarding the extension of the Payment of Wages Act to mines?
11. What is the extent of absenteeism among the miners in your mine and how do you account for it? Please suggest ways and means to counteract it.
12. What effects did the stoppage of employment of women in the pre-war years have on:—
(a) the mining industry,
(b) standard of living of the miners, and
(c) female workers.
13. To what extent, if any, are the provisions of the Indian Mines Act disregarded about the employment of children? Are you aware of any breach of the Children (Pledging of Labour) Act in any of the mines?
14. (a) What have been the effects of the restriction of working hours, as enforced by the Indian Mines Act on:—
(i) the health and efficiency of adult workers and young persons working below ground, and
(b) Should the upper age limit in the case of young persons prescribed by the Act, viz., 17 be modified?
(c) Will a further reduction of working hours result in increasing, maintaining or decreasing the present production?
15. What is the incidence of Sillicosis, Miner's Nystagmus, Cellulitis and other industrial diseases peculiar to mining in your mine? What steps, if any, have been taken to deal with such diseases?
16. To what extent on the provisions relating to Safety Measures laid down in the Indian Mines Act and in the Regulations made there under observed in the mines? Are they adequate?
17. What facilities do you provide for training the prescribed number of your workers in First Aid. What is the duration of the course? Do you have refresher courses for workers already trained? Is the equipment for First Aid adequate? Please give details.
18. Have employers made any arrangements above or below ground for the supply of refreshments and cooked food to workers?
19. Is the drink and drug evil rampant among the miners? If so, have you any suggestions for the eradication of the evil?
20. Are the provisions of the Indian Mines Act and Rules made there under being strictly enforced? If not, please state the extent to which evasion or violation is taking place in respect of any provisions and the methods or means of such evasion or violation.
21. Have you any suggestions to make for improving the Indian Mines Act or its. administrative machinery with a view to protecting labour or ameliorating its condition? If so, please mention them.
22. Are you in favour of extending the Factories Act to mica-splitting establishments? Please give reasons.
23. How far does "piracy" prevail in the mica-mining industry? How far is it carried on by the workers themselves? How far is it due to low wages?
Seedlac and Shellac
1. If the factory is seasonal what are its months of active working in the year?
For how many days in the year does it work?
2. What are the causes of fluctuations in employment in this industry? What remedies would you propose to stabilise employment in it?
3. If any mechanical power is used state the purposes for which it is used. What is the kind of power in use?
4. What are the possibilities of using better machinery and technique of production in the industry? What effect would this have on employment in the long run?
5. What are the main types of workers engaged in the industry and what are their precise functions?
What is the nature of work done by women and children?
6. Are there any breaches of the Employment of Children Amendment Act of 1939 which prohibits the employment of children below 12 years in the industry?
7. Are there any cases of pledging of children in lieu of payment of debts or otherwise, contrary to the provisions of the Children (Pledging of Labour) Act, 1933?
8. Where work is seasonal what is the occupation of the workers in the off-season period?
B. Wages and Earnings
9. State whether joint wages are paid to workers in any occupation. What is the basis of payment in such cases and how are wages divided by workers among themselves?
10. Where weight is the basis of payment is weighment done correctly? What is the usual excess of weight per maund, allowed by the employer in his own favour?
11. How long does it take normally to wash one maund of seedlac and melt one maund of washed lac?
12. What difference does the quality of lac make in the time taken to wash and melt one maund of it?
13. Is any allowance made for quality in determining payment to workers?
C. Hours and Conditions of Work
14. Describe the arrangement of chulhas, bhattas, or stoves in the factory. What is the number of melting sheds?
How many bhattas are there in each shed?
What is the area of each shed?
How many persons work in each shed?
Do women and children work in these sheds?
What is the height of ceiling in melting sheds?
What is the state of ventilation in them?
Describe the type of floor, condition of roofs, lighting and temperature in the factory.
15. How often is the water used for washing lac changed?
Do men, women and children have to stand in water during the process of washing?
Questionnaire for ad hoc survey of Port Labour.
Name of Centre......................
Recruitment and Employment
I A. State the approximate number of workers employed by you in this port in 1939 and since January 1944.
Permanent ... 1939.............. 1944
Casual ... 1939.............. 1944.
B. What is your estimate of the number of workers who are immigrant? From what areas do they emigrate?
2. Describe the system of recruitment and employment of both permanent and casual workers. To what extent is casual labour employed directly? Are there any particular difficulties in the way of direct employment and payment of Casual Labour?
3. Please describe the various kinds of work on which port workers are employed, and indicate the basis of distinction between skilled and unskilled labour.
4. If casual labour is engaged and paid through the agency of jamadars or sirdars, please point out any particular advantages of such a system.
Is it open to any abuses? In particular is there any evidence of bribery or special commission paid by workers to secure employment?
5. A. What are your minimum daily requirements of labour?
B. To what extent, is the number of your permanent employees less than your minimum daily requirements? Is it not possible to maintain a larger permanently employed labour force? If not, please state reasons.
6. A. What is the approximate number of persons normally seeking employment daily?
B. Can you give an estimate of the number which fails to obtain employment (a) in the busy season, (b) in the slack season?
C. What are the principle causes of fluctuations in employment? Can you suggest measures for reducing such fluctuations?
7. In the employment of casual labour,
(a) Do you or your agents maintain any preference lists of workers by which preference is given to workers employed previously?
(b) Is there a system of registration of such workers?
8. A. It is believed that registration of workers would be an effective means of controlling new entrants, regularising employment and reducing the excess of supply to a minimum. Do you agree?
B. Are there any difficulties in the way of maintaining registers and alloting registration or license numbers, to casual workers?
9 Can you suggest any other method of decasualisation and equitable distribution of employment?
10. Are there any periods during which a general scarcity of labour is experienced? To what extent is the migratory character of port workers responsible for such scarcity?
11. Are there any particular points in the port area where casual workers collect in expectation of finding employment? How many such points are there and how far are they from one another?
12 A. Is it your experience that excess of labour in some parts of the port co-exists occasionally with scarcity elsewhere?
B. Are there satisfactory means of communication and transport between them so that labour may be called from places where it is in excess supply to where it is required?
C. If not, do you think that the existence of such means of communication and transport would increase mobility of labour and reduce unemployment?
13. In case of failure to obtain employment what alternative forms of employment are available to casual workers?
14. A. Give an estimate of the average number of days in the month from which casual workers find employment? How does it compare with pre-war conditions?
B. In selecting workers for daily employment do sirdars tend to give preference to younger workers?
15. What is the normal size of a gang of workers? Does it vary from time to time? If so, what are the limits of variations?
Who supervises the work of a gang? If the sirdars, do they also do manual labour?
Wages and Earnings
16. What is the basis of payment to (a) labour contractors (b) Gang jamadars (c) Workers?
17. Are wages paid daily, weekly or monthly? Are pay roll maintained? If so, who maintains them?
18. Please give rates of daily earnings of different categories of casual workers at present. How do they compare with pre-war rates? Are they paid any dearness allowance? If so, how is it calculated and paid? Do workers employed in the Port enjoy any concessions regarding cheap food grains etc. If so, what are these and what would be their monetary equivalent? Is overtime paid for? At what rate is it paid?
19. Are workers employed on the same work paid the same wages? If not, what are the reasons for differential payment? Are terms of payment subject to negotiation in individual cases?
20. What are the rates of weekly or monthly wages of permanent workers including those doing the same work on which casual workers are engaged? How do they compare with pre-war wages?
21. Are permanent workers paid any dearness or other allowances?
22. What are the types of deductions made by Sirdars or contractors from workers' wages? Are such deductions subject to any control?
Conditions of work
23. How many shifts do you work? What is the number of hours of work per shift? What is the normal duration of a shift including intervals for rest, meals or stoppage of work for whatever reason? Are shift times fixed? Please give details about the times of commencement and ending of different shifts. What are the hours and shifts when there is continuous work exceeding a period of 24 hours?
24. Is any labour employed for less than a complete shift? If so how are wages paid in such cases?
25. Please give your estimate of the number of years for which port workers are able to work as such. At what age do they generally retire?
26. What are the most prevalent diseases or maladies among port workers? What medical facilities, if any, are available to them?
27. A. How far has the Indian Port Labour Act, 1935 been successful in protecting port workers against accidents arising from loading and unloading of shifts? What safety measures have been adopted?
B. What is the system of investigation of accidents?
28. Are there any special difficulties felt by port workers in obtaining compensation against accidents? In particular consider the. position of contract and casual labour.
29. How far from the port do casual workers live? Are there any housing facilities provided by employers?
30. What are the means and cost of transport between workers' homes and place of work?
31. To what extent are the provisions of the Employment of Children Act, 1938 being observed? Have you appointed a Labour Officer? If so, what are his functions?
32. In particular what control does he exercise on Sirdars and workers?
Non-Gazetted Railways Services (including Engineering, Transportation, Commercial and other Department but excluding workshop staff).
Name of Railway......................
Areas covered by the Railway..............
Is it Company owned and Company managed or State-owned and State managed?
A. Railway Administration
1. State the constitution of the Railway Board and its relation to:—
(a) State-owned and State-managed Railways.
(b) State-owned and Company-managed Railways.
(c) Company owned and Company-managed Railways.
Classify the different railways under these headings and state, if the Railway Board can enforce its policy in respect of establishment and labour questions on the Company-owned and Company-managed Railways.
2. Describe the administration of railways owned by Indian States. (For Indian States only.)
3. What are the powers of the General Managers or Agents of railways in respect of the non-gazetted staff? Have there been any complaints from the railway staff or from the Central Legislature?
4. State the different categories of employees in the non-gazetted services in the engineering, transportation, commercial and other allied departments (e.g., gangmen, pointsmen, signalmen, porters luggage coolies, semi-skilled and skilled workers and all others who do not hold any gazetted post) and the average daily number employed in each category in August 1939 and in January 1944 as follows:—
|Aug. 1939 Jan. 1944||Aug. 1939 Jan. 1944|
|Employed and paid directly|
|Employed and paid through contractors|
|Employed through contractors but paid directly|
5. Please give statistical information regarding the length of service of the different categories of employees in inferior and labour categories in the following form:-—
Those between 0 & 1 year of service.
Those between 1 & 5 years of service.
Those between 5 & 10 years of service.
Those over 10 years of service.
6. How is recruitment made in various departments in respect of different posts. (e.g., gangmen, keymen, mates semi-skilled and skilled workers and others on supervisory posts in the Engineering Department, Luggage Coolies, Porters, Bhishtis, Sweepers, Lampmen, Jamadars, unskilled workers on or about the different stations, pointsmen, Gatemen, Signalmen, Engine Drivers, Station Masters, etc., in the Transportation and Commercial Department; fitters, cleaners and others in the locomotive sheds)?
Are proper registers of appointments to and dismissals from all these posts kept? Are these examined regularly by administrative and personnel offices? Have there been any complaints on the subject?
7. What is the proportion of gangmen and other labour employed on the permanent way who absent themselves in the sowing and harvesting seasons? Is any preference given to them for re-employment over other persons?
8. State the system of apprenticeship for ordinary and supervisory posts and the terms, if any. How are apprentices selected and trained for appointments like A.P.W.I, etc.? Is the apprenticeship period counted towards total service?
9. Is there any system of graded or time-scale promotion? If so, please give details?
10. State the extent of labour turnover on your railway in respect of the different categories of employees in the inferior and labour staff for the years 1939 and 1943 in the form below:—
|Average daily number of workers employed during the month or year||Total number of workers who left during the month or year|
What are the reasons for this labour turnover? Suggest measure for reducing it.
11. Supply figures for absenteeism for the different categories of employees in the inferior and labour staff for the years 1939 and 1943. What are the causes of this absenteeism and how would you reduce it?
12. Have you any Service Rules governing the relationships of employers and employees? Please supply a copy of the same, if possible.
13. Have you any system of leave with or without pay for your employees? If so, please supply a copy of the same. Do those leave rules, differ from Department to Department on the same railway? Is there any distinction between higher and lower grades of employees on this score?
14. Is there any class of employees eligible to special benefits in regard to recruitment, starting pay, promotion, training, leave or other matters? If so, please give details and also the reasons therefor.
15. Have you any officer to enquire into the grievances of your employees, especially in regard to security of service? If not, what other machinery have you set up for this purpose?
16. What are the wage-rates for different types of employees? What changes have occurred in basic wages (exclusive of all allowances) since August 1939?
17. Please describe in brief the principle determining the fixation of your wage-rates for different classes of your employees. Is there any uniformity of practice in similar departments on the same railway or on the various railways?
18. Please give details of dearness and other allowances, bonuses and gratuities paid to your employees since the outbreak of the war and state which of these are temporary and which are permanent. Are any conditions attached to their payment?
19. Give details of the scales of pay of different types of employees as also the wages and earnings of persons employed under contract.
20. How is overtime calculated and paid for? Is overtime work compulsory? Do you maintain any registers for recording overtime? Are these available to the employees or their representatives for inspection?
21. What deductions are made from wages and why? Have they any relation to pay?
22. Do you impose fines as a disciplinary measures? Is there a Fine Fund? Who is in charge of its disposal? What is the amount outstanding in it and how is it utilised?
23. What are the periods of wage payment for different kinds of employees? How long after the wage period are wages actually paid? State in detail the machinery used for this purpose. What arrangements are made for the payment of employees on the line and what attempts are made to see that the amounts due are correctly paid in the case of illiterate employees?
D. Working Conditions
24. How many shifts are worked by different categories of employees in the engineering, transportation and commercial departments on your railway? What are the number of hours in each shift and the times of commencement and ending? What are the number of hours worked per week and the total spreadover? Is any distinction made between continuous and intermittent character of work in this respect?
25. What arrangements are made for:—
(a) intervals of rest,
(b) weekly holidays, in respect of different workers? Are they working satisfactorily?
26 How far do the International Labour Conventions apply on your railway in respect of:—
(a) working hours,
(b) rest days,
(c) other matters?
27. State the actual conditions of work of each grade of employees. Are these satisfactory?
E. Welfare activities
28. Give a detailed account of welfare arrangements, if any, made for the employees under the following heads:—
(a) Dispensaries and hospitals for employees and their families. Give the number of cases treated every day, prevalent diseases, qualifications of Doctors-in-charge, their emoluments, etc.
(b) Provision of portable canteens for employees working on the line.
(c) Educational facilities for employees.
(d) Recreation for the staff.
(e) Free or concessional passes, uniforms waterproofs, umbrellas, etc.
(f) Benefits to the dependants of the deceased employees.
(g) Any other item.
29. Give details of houses provided by your Railway for different grades of employees with reference to:—
(a) Proportion of employees housed.
c) Types of Houses. d) Sub-letting.
(e) Sanitation and water supply.
(f) Crowding and congestion.
G. Trade Unions and Strikes
30. Are your employees organised into trade unions? State the position regarding membership, monthly subscription, etc. Has there been any agreement regarding wages, hours of work, employment, dismissal, etc. Please supply a copy of the agreement, if any, state whether in your opinion the unions are working satisfactorily or not.
31. Have you any Staff Committee? If so give its constitution and an account of its activities.
32. Give details of strikes on your railways for the last fifteen years. What were the causes of such strikes and how were they settled? How-far were the demands of the strikers satisfied?
H. Safety Acts, etc.
33. Are the following Acts rigidly observed on your Railway;—
(a) Payment of Wages Act.
(b) Workmen's Compensation Act.
(c) Employment of Children Act.
What action have you taken to acquaint your staff with the provisions of these Acts? Have there been any complaints?
34. State the compensation amounts paid every year during the period 1939—44. Under what different headings were the Compensation Claims preferred?
35 Do you have any periodical medical examination for some or all of your employees? When a worker is adjudged medically unfit, what attempts are made to find him other work? Has he the right to be examined by an independent specialist in the event of an adverse medical report?
36. (a) Are your employees indebted? Give an idea of the extent of indebtedness among the different categories and the causes responsible for the same.
(b) Have you started any co-operative credit societies? If so, how are they working?
37. What is the usual rate of interest which employees pay on loans? What remedial measures are in force to reduce this indebtedness and to teach the employees habits of thrift, etc.? How far have they been successful?
38. Please supply a copy each of the rules and regulations of your Provident Fund, Gratuity and Pension Schemes, if any. Do these apply to all classes of employees including contract labour? State the actual number of employees that benefit by each one of these schemes and the extent to which they benefit. Are these benefits adequate?
A. Magnitude of Employment
1. What is the number of registered Rickshaws in ......................
How many of these are public Vehicles? How many of these are private Vehicles?
2. What is the number of licensed Rickshaw pullers?
3. Are there any rules relating to Rickshaw pullers prescribed by the Municipality? If so, please give details.
B. Ownership of Rickshaws
4. What is the number of public rickshaws owned by pullers?
5 What is the number of public rickshaws owned by Chaudhris and hired out to pullers?
6. What is the purchase price of a rickshaw?
7. What is the average life of a rickshaw?
8. What are the difficulties in the way of ownership of rickshaws by pullers?
9. Is the Municipal ownership of rickshaws a practicable proposition?
10. What are the advantages of the ownership of rickshaws by Chaudhris?
11. Are rickshaw stands auctioned or leased by the Municipality? If so,. state the amount of the money realised from this source.
C. Conditions of Employment and Hire
12. Is there any agreement, written or conventional, between Chaudhris and pullers regarding the terms and period of hire of Vehicles or any other conditions of employment?
13. To what extent are the terms of such agreement prescribed or enforced by the Municipal authorities?
14. Is there any other intermediary between Chaudhris and pullers? If so, what are his functions and earnings?
15. Do teams of pullers hire out rickshaws on their own collective responsibility, directly from chaudhris or do the chaudhris engage their own teams directly or through intermediaries? (For Simla only.)
16. Is the constitution of teams of pullers fixed or does it vary from time to time? (For Simla only.)
17. Are the liabilities of pullers to chaudhris and others, individual or collective? (For Simla only.)
18. Are pullers required to deposit any security before they are given charge of rickshaws? If so, indicate the source from which pullers obtain the amount required?
D. Earnings and Hours
19. What are the rates of Rickshaw hire for the public?
20. What is the basis of payment by pullers to Chaudhris and intermediaries, if any?
21. What is the proportion of hourly earnings of pullers claimed by owners of Vehicles?
22. What are the checks enforced by Chaudhris on the pullers earnings to determine their own shares?
23. What are the abuses of such a system of sharing of earnings?
24. Are payments by pullers to chaudhris etc., made daily? How are accounts maintained?
25. How do pullers share their earnings among themselves? (For Simla only.)
26. What are the approximate total daily or monthly earnings (including tips) per puller?
27. Who is responsible for the repair and upkeep of rickshaws hired out by pullers?
28. Are there any kinds of repairs, e.g., punctures which are a liability of pullers?
29. In case of accidents involving damage to Vehicles, are the pullers responsible? If so, to what extent?
30. Who supplies uniforms? Is the wearing of uniforms compulsory? Who pays for their washing and replacement?
31. What is the license fee for pullers and who pays it?
32. What is the registration fee for rickshaws and who pays it?
33. What is the number of hours worked by pullers daily?
34. For how many months in the year do pullers works ?
35. Is there any law regarding the attachment of pullers' •earnings and rickshaws for debt etc,?
36. Where do pullers live?
Is accommodation provided for them by Municipality or by Government? If so describe—
(a) The type of accommodation,
(b) Density of occupation,
(f) Water and lighting,
(g) Arrangements for cooking, etc.
F. Age and Health
37. What is the range of ages in which pulling is practicable?
38. Are there any rules regarding age-limits for pullers?
If not, is it desirable that there should be any such rules? If so, please indicate their contents.
39. Are pullers medically examined before being licensed?
40. Is it desirable that they should be so examined?
41. What are the common maladies or diseases suffered by pullers?
42. Are any medical facilities available to pullers?
43. What is the average expectation of life of a puller?
44. What is the occupation of pullers during the off season?
45. What is their usual domicile?
46. Does any indebtedness exist among pullers? If so, what are their sources of borrowings?
47. What factors lead them into indebtedness and what 4s the rate of interest payable by them?
Questionnaire for Tramways and Bus Transport Service to be filled up by Supervisors
Name of Concern............,
Type of Concern..............
Question 1.—State the changes which have taken place in the basic wage rates, both time and piece (as distinct from allowances, etc.) since August 1939.
Question 2.—Describe the present system of shifts or relays for different categories of workers. What changes have taken place in the number of working hours per shift/relay since August 1939?
In bus transport concerns in which the shift system does not prevail state the average number of hours worked by employees on running duties and the usual 'spreadover' of working hours.
Question 3.—A. What is the wage period?
B. What is the period elapsing between the end of the wage period and the date of payment of wages and allowances?
Question 4.—A. Are employees allowed any holidays with pay?
B. What are the leave privileges allowed to employees including privileges regarding weekly leave?
Question 5.—Do wages differ according to the size or type of vehicle
in charge of drivers and conductors or according to routes covered by them? If so, please give details.
Question 6.—A. Are any concessions granted to the employees such as provision of:—
(a) Cheap grain, Canteen or cloth shops.
(b) Housing—free or at concession rates.
(c) Medical facilities.
(d) Free or cheap supply of light and water,
(e) Free or cheap supply of fuel.
(f) Free passes for travelling in their employer's vehicles.
(g) Uniforms. (h) Others.
B. To what extent are the above concessions availed of?
(a) Is there a Provident Fund for employees?
(b) Is it registered?
(c) Is it voluntary or compulsory?
(d) When was it started?
(e) Is it opened to all the employees permanent and temporary or only to some?
Give details such as:—
(a) Worker's contribution.
(b) Employer's contribution.
(c) Conditions to which claims of employees on employer's contributions are subject.
(d) Rate of interest paid.
(e) Rules relating to advances from the fund and repayment of such advances.
(f) What is total membership of the fund at present?
(g) What is the amount of the fund outstanding at present?
Question 8.—Are employees paid bonuses or gratuities such as:—
A. (a) Attendance bonus.
(b) Annual profit bonus.
(c) War bonus.
(d) Annual gratuity.
(e) Bonus for 'accident free' driving.
B. How many get it and at what rate?
C. What are the conditions for the payment of the above bonuses?
Question 9.—Are employees given any gratuity, pension or any benefits at the time of retirement? Give details regarding—
(a) Gratuity at the time of retirement.
(b) Pension after retirement.
(c) Other benefits.
Question 10.—Please give details about the various allowances granted since the outbreak of the war.
(a) Dearness allowance.
Question 11.—Please give details regarding the various deductions made from wages.
Question 12.—Please supply information regarding the. scale of pay and allowances (including rates of increment) for different categories of the staff.
LABOUR INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE
(GOVERNMENT OF INDIA)
Supplementary Questionnaire on Plantations
N.B. - The statistics to be given under this section should relate to
the latest year for which they are available.
I. What is the total number of labourers including their dependants living in your estate? Please classify the families as follows:—
Adult Children Adult Children
|M W. M. W.|
|(a) No. of families consisting of 1 member.|
|(b) No. of families consisting of 2 members.|
|(c) No. of families consisting of 3 members.|
|(d) No. of families consisting of members.|
|(e) No. of families Consisting of 6 members.|
|(f) No. of families consisting of more than 6 members.|
2. Please give the total number of workers (men, women and children separately) employed on your estate during the pre-war month (August 1939) and during any recent month for which information may be available.
3. If possible, please give the age composition of your workers in the following form:
Those under 15,
Those between 15 and 55,
Those above 55,
If this is not possible, please give at least the percentage of workers above 55 to the total labour force.
4. What are the principal sources form which the labour force is drawn for work on your estate? Please supply figures by provinces, states or districts as may be possible.
5. What is the total number of settled labourers borne on your register and what is the average number employed daily? (Please give the number of men, women and children separately as well as the figure of each category for each month and for the year as well.) What is the average daily number of casual or outside (bustee or faltu) labourers employed during the year and during each month? What proportion of the settled labourers or casual labourers belongs to the class of general agricultural labourers in the district?
6. Is a labourer free to seek employment in any estate he likes? Is there any agreement or understanding among employers not to entice labour from another estate or employ a labourer from another estate without the approval of the latter estate?
7. Are outsiders required to take permission of the manager before they can enter and visit the lines? Is any meeting of labourers allowed without permission?
8. Describe the machinery and methods of recruitment of plantation labour. In particular, state whether the recruitment is by families and whether the Saroars or Kanganis work as the employers' agent or as independent professional recruiters. What are the terms of the agreement of recruitment? Please forward a copy of the agreement if possible.
9. Is there a system of giving pre-employment advances to labour and, if so, what is the average amount advanced per worker or per family? How are these advances given and recovered? Are accounts properly kept and is each worker supplied with a copy of his account in his own language? What is the period of settlement of such accounts and what interest if any, is charged?
10. Are the workers in Assam plantations cognisant of their rights under the Tea Districts Emigrant Labour Act, 1932, especially with regard to their right of repatriation? If not, what steps have been taken to make them aware of their rights?
11. Have any strikes taken place on your estate? If so, please give full details stating the dates of the strikes and the number of workers involved. What were the issues raised and how far were they met in subsequent settlements? What was the machinery employed for settlement?
12. To what extent and in what respects have labour conditions on your plantations improved or worsened in recent years, especially since the Royal Commission on Labour reported in 1931?
13. Express your views on the suitability of a tripartite machinery in each Province or State concerned for dealing with the various problems of plantation labour, such as, housing, emigration, welfare activities, education, health, etc.
14. What machinery would you suggest for periodical inspection of labour condition on plantations?
15. Are the provisions of the Tea Districts Emigrant Labour Act and Rules made there under being strictly enforced? If not, please state the extent to which evasion or violation is taking place in respect of any provisions and the methods or means of such evasion or violation.
16. In areas other than the Assam Tea Districts, what machinery has been set up to safeguard the interests of workers, especially in regard to recruitment and repatriation?
17. (a) Have you any suggestions to make for improving or expanding the scope of the Tea Districts Emigrant Labour Act or. its administrative machinery?
(b) Are you in favour of extending the Act to areas not at present covered by it? If so, please- give reasons.
F.N. 33—2 Lab. 56.
(Please give information in respect of the same year as in Section I, if possible.)
1. On how many days in the week do the labourers work and is a weekly holiday observed? Is there any involuntary employment? Are there any paid holidays?
2. What are the normal hours of work— (a) in field, (b) in factory?
3. (i) Are wages of non-factory labour paid on the basis of—(a) piece rate, or (b) at daily rates?
(ii) If (b), what are the minimum hours for a full day and how is overtime paid?
(iii) If labour is paid at a piece rate (or hazira) what is the unit of work for a full hazira?
(iv) If labourers are paid at daily rates, what are the wages of different kinds of labourers and for overtime?
(v) What is the piece rate or hazira rate? Is work in excess of hazira freely allowed?
(vi) What is your total wage bill during the year and how much of it was regular earning and how much ticca or overtime? Please give this information month by month and state the total number of settled labourers on your books and the average number daily employed, month by month, (men, women, and children should be shown separately).
(vii) What is the best period for earning ticca or overtime? How is plucking paid? Is it paid on the hazira basis?
4. On what basis are the basic wages (hazira or daily rate or any other piece rate) fixed? Please state this basic rate each year during 1930—1940 or. any other period of 10 years and the average price of common rice in your locality during these years. Is there any agreement about wages among employers and is any employer free to change the wage rates? What steps are taken to increase wages if the cost of living rises? If wages are not increased is any dearness allowance given or are food-stuffs supplied at a concession rate? If so, what has been the annual expenditure on dearness allowance or loss due to the supply of foodstuffs at a concession rate during the last 10 years? What, are the other concessions, in money or in kind, given? Please state under what conditions these concessions are given and what is the amount spent each year during the last 5 years for different concessions and how many persons received the concessions? Please evaluate concessions in kind in term of money and state why they should not be abolished in lieu of a consolidated wage.
5. If the basic rate or hazira has not been changed recently, please explain the circumstances under which this was fixed. Is any garden in your locality paying a higher rate? Please name the garden or gardens and justify the difference.
6. What is the wage period on your plantation? What is the interval usually elapsing between the date on which wages become due and are actually paid? Is there any system of settling, the account at the end of the season and, if so, please state why it should not be discontinued? Are any deductions made from wages for fine or otherwise and is the labourer informed of such deductions?
7 How is the leaf weighed on. tea plantation? and how are the accounts kept? Is the weighing machine tested at regular intervals? If so, by whom? Are any deductions made for dampness while weighing the leaf and, if so, on what basis?
8. How do earnings on plantations compare with those of agriculture workers in neighbouring areas?
9. Do labourers take leave when they absent themselves from work (on grounds other than sickness)? Are labourers informed by the employer when work cannot be offered to them?
10. What is the total amount of (a) Estate land, and (b) other lands cultivated by the settled labourers r How many families possess land and what is the approximate value of the produce per acre? What rent is charged by the estate and is a labourer liable to vacate the land on demand by the estate? How is selection of labourers for land made?
11. Are workers encouraged to keep cattle on the plantations? If so, are suitable cattle sheds and pasture ground provided? Is any pasturage charge levied?
12. Are you in favour of the establishment of Wage Boards in different plantation areas? Give reasons for your views.
13. Are you in favour of applying the Payment of Wages Act and some provisions of the Factories Act (e.g; hours of work, etc.) to the non-factory labour on plantations? If not, please state why?
I. Has any scheme for providing quarters of an improved type to labourer been adopted by your estate? If so please explain the scheme briefly and state how many such quarters have been put up in each year since the inception of the scheme and at what expenditure in each year? If no quarters of an improved type have been built or only a small number has been built, please state why no progress has been made.
2. (a) What are the types of quarters in which labourers are housed on the estate? Please supply information on the following points:-
(a) Type of quarters.
(b) No. of families living in such quarters.
(c) Total population of living in such quarters.
(i) Kucha barracks
(ii) Pucca barracks
(iii) Single and detached quarters (Kucha)
(iv) Single and detached quarters
(N.B.—Kucha means earthen-floor and mud or bamboo walls. Pucca means paved or cemented floor.)
What is the floor area of a single quarter and how many persons live in one quarter on an average?
How many rooms are allotted, on an average, to each family in barrack houses? What is the area of each room, on an average,
and the size of a family on an average, living in such barracks? Is a kitchen attached to each living room?
(b) Are windows provided in each living room? If so, please give details.
(i) What is the height of the plinth of the houses? (ii) Is a paved yard provided in front of the lines?
(iii) Are concrete drains provided in front of the lines and, if so, of what type?
(iv) Is a bath room attached to each living room?
If there are common bath rooms, is separate provision made for male and female labour?
3. What rent is charged from labourers for their quarters and who pays for repairs? Please state how much the estate has spent each year during the last 10 years on housing on—
(i) new construction, and (ii) repairs.
Please also state the amount of rent, if any realised in each year during these
4. How many latrines have been provided for the labourers quarters and of what type, e.g., ordinary, bore-hole, "ftush", etc.? To what extent are they used? What arrangements are made for cleaning the latrines? What is the proportion of the number of latrines to the number of living rooms?
IV.—HEALTH AND SANITATION
1. What are your birth and death figures in recent years? (Please give the figures separately for each year and show the ratios of births and deaths per 1, 000 of the population.)
Are births and deaths promptly recorded?
2. Is there any dispensary on the estate and is there a qualified doctor constantly available? If not, what arrangements have been made for the treatment of sick labourers? Are there any hospital facilities on the estate? If not, what is done with such cases?
3. Is treatment free to labourers and their dependants? Is any fee charged for such treatment?
4. Is any allowance paid to a labourer or a dependant if he is sick? If so, please state the rate of such allowance and the conditions under which it is paid. Please also state the total expenditure incurred every year by the estate on this account during the last 5 years.
5. (i) Is there any maternity clinic or any special arrangements for ante-and post-natal cases? Is any maternity benefit paid? If so, please give details.
(ii) Do confinements generally take place in
(a) the hospital or
(b) the lines?
What payment, if any, is made to the parents at child birth at (a) or (b) above?
(iii) For how many weeks before, and after, confinement, respectively is free food issued to the mother?
(iv) Is any special diet given to the mother and infant in addition to (iii) above? If so, please give details.
(v) Is any free clothing issued to the infant?
6. Is there any provision for child welfare or periodical medical examination of children and adults? Please give particulars.
7. What arrangements are made for looking after children when mothers are engaged in work? Are any creches maintained by the estate?
8. Please give the following information for each year for as many years as possible, showing the number of cases treated in the estate dispensary and hospital:—
|Total average population||Cases of minor ailments||Cases of major ailments||Total No. of cases treated||No. of cases of malaria.|
N.B.—Minor ailments include such complaints as skin diseases, burns sores, bowel complaints, etc.
9. Please state the amount spent annually by the estate during the last 5 years for the provision of medical relief and sanitation. (This expenditure should not include expenditure on anti-malarial measures, provision of pure drinking water, etc.)
10. Has any anti-malarial scheme been started on the estate? If so, please explain briefly the measures taken. Please state the annual expenditure on such measures during recent years. What has been the effect of such a scheme on the general health of labourers?
11. What provision has been made for supplying pure drinking water? Is the water supply adequate and easily available?
12. Do you issue a free meal daily to all non-working children? If so, please give details.
1. Have any measures been adopted for the welfare of labourers and their dependants? If so, please explain briefly the scope of such work and the expenditure incurred by the estate on such work.
2. Are there any schools for adults? If so, when were they started and what is the average daily attendance.
3. Are there any schools for children? What is the contribution of the estate to such schools? Are such schools under the Education Department or under the estate? What is the number of children taught in these schools and what is the average daily attendance? What is the proportion of students to the total number of children of school going age? Is education free? Will attendance improve if children below 12 years are not employed by the estate?
4. What are the recreations of labourers? Are cinema shows or music parties provided at the expense of the estate? Do labourers make any contribution to such shows? How much has the estate spent for this purpose in recent years?
5. Is there much drinking among labourers? If so, what steps do you propose for the eradication of this evil?
6. Have your workers joined any trade union and, if so, what is their number? Is there any desire for combination among your labourers?
7. What arrangements exist in your estate for ensuring adequate and regular supplies of provisions to your workers?
List of Provincial Governments from whom replies to the General Questionnaire were received
1. N.W.F.P. Government.
2. United Provinces Government.
3. Orissa Government.
4. Madras Government,
5. Bihar Government.
6. Sind Government
7. Assam Government.
8. Bengal Government.
9. Chief Commissioner, Coorg.
List of Indian States from whom replies to the General Questionnaire were received
List of semi-Government bodies from whom replies to General Questionnaire were received
1. The Chief Inspector of Factories, N.W.F.P., Peshawar.
2. The Chairman, Delhi Improvement Trust, Delhi.
3. The Chief Inspector of Factories, Bihar, Ranchi.
4. The Chairman, Madras Port Trust, Madras.
5. The Principal, Thomason College, Roorkee.
6. The Commissioner, Southern Division, Belgaum.
7. The Executive Engineer, P. W. D., Koraput Division, Korapul.
8. The Executive Engineer, Ganjam Division, P.W.D., Berhampur.
9. The Chief Inspector of Factories, Orissa, Cuttack.
10. The First Class Subordinate Judge and Ex-Officio Commissioner for Workmen's Compensation, West Khandesh, Dhulia.
11. The First Class Subordinate Judge and Commissioner for Work-men's Compensation, Hubli.
12. The Commissioner, Workmen's Compensation Act, Ajmer.
13. The Collector of Mining Branch, Ajmer-Merwara,
14. The Chief Inspector of Factories, Delhi and Ajmer-Merwara. Delhi.
15. The First Class Subordinate Judge, Sholapur and Ex-Officio Commissioner for Workmens' Compensation, First Class Court, Sholapur.
16. The Master of the Mint, His Majesty's Mint, Fort, Bombay.
17. The Executive Engineer, Sambalpur Division, Sambalpur.
18. The Commissioner, Workmen's Compensation, Bombay.
19. The Assistant Director of Health, Northern Registration, Ahmedabad.
20. The Labour Commissioner, United Provinces, Cawnpore.
21. The General Manager, South Indian Railway.
22. The Commissioner, Northern Division, Bombay Province, Shahi Bagh, Ahmedabad.
23. The Sub-Judge and Ex-Officio Commissioner, Workmen's Compensation, Gadag (Distt. Dharwar).
24. The Agent and General Manager, Bengal-Nagpur Railway.
25. The Chairman, Improvement Trust, Cawnpore.
26. The Secretary to the Government of Bombay, P. W. D. (Roads and Buildings) Bombay, Castle.
27. The Captain Superintendent, H. M. I. Dockyard, Bombay.
28. The Labour-Officer, Bombay, 65, Clerk Road Jacob Circle, Bombay.
29. The District Officer, Balasore.
30. The General Manager, North Western Railway.
31. The Chairman, Karachi Part Trust, Karachi.
32. The Executive Engineer, Mahanadi Division, Cuttack.
33. The Administrative Officer, Port of Cochin, Willingdon Island P.O. .
34. The President Engineer and Administrator of Civil Personnel, Vazigapatam Port.
35. The Secretary, Provincial Labour Supply Committee, New Block Opp. Sectt., Bombay.
36. The General Manager, 0. & T. Railway.
37. The Chairman, The Commissioner for the Port of Calcutta Office,
38. The Labour Commissioner, Madras.
39. The General Manager, East Indian Railway.
40. The Labour Commissioner, Bihar.
41. The Labour Commissioner, Sind, Department of Labour, Karachi.
42. The Deputy Coal Commissioner (Production), C. M. E.
43. The Secretary, Bombay Port Trust, Bombay.
44. The General Manager, Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway.
45. The District Officer, Cuttack.
46. The Director of Industries, Punjab, Lahore.
47. The Chief Inspector of Factories, Assam, Shillong.
48. The Labour Commissioner., C. P. & Berar.
49. The Chief Inspector of Factories, C. P. & Berar.
50. The Civil Judge; Senior Division and Ex-Officio Commissioner for Workmen's Compensation, Broach.
51. The General Manager, M. & S. M. Railway.
52. The Executive Engineer, C. P. W. D., Cuttack, Division, Cuttack.
53. The General Manager, Gaekwar Baroda State Railways, Baroda.
54. Mr. B. E. Dadachanji, Head of the Department of Studies in Economics, Nagpur University, Nagpur,
55. The Chief Inspector of Factories, Bengal.
56. The Commissioner, Workmen's Compensation, Bengal.
List of Employer's Organisations, Companies, etc. from whom replies to the General Questionnaire were received
1. The Patna Electric Supply Co. Ltd., Calcutta a. The Gwalior Potteries Ltd, New Delhi.
3. The Octavious Steel Co. Ltd., Calcutta.
4. The Sone-Valley Portland Cement Co., Ltd., Japla.
5. The Indian Planter's Association, Coorg, Mercara.
6. The Tinplate Company of India Ltd., Gulmuri.
7. The Indian Tea Association, Calcutta.
8. The Asbestos Cement Ltd., Bombay.
9. The Newton Chickli Collieries Ltd., Parasia.
10. The New Egerton Woollen Mills Dhariwal.
11. The C.P. Syndicate Ltd., No. a Colliery, Junnordio.
12. The Sijua (Jherriah) Electric Supply Co. Ltd., Bensjora.
13. The Parasia Colliery, Parasia.
14. The Southern, India Millowners' Association, Coimbatore.
15. The Engineering Association of India, Calcutta.
16. The Trichinopoly Mills Ltd., Trichinopoly.
17. The Jaypore Sugar Co. Ltd., Rayagada.
18. The Ganesh Flour Mills, Co. Ltd., Lyalpur.
19. The Sandal Wood Oil Factory, Mysore.
20. The Mysore Sugar Co. Ltd., Bangalore.
21. The Andhura Paper Mills Go. Ltd., Rajahmundry.
22. The Sitaram Spinning and Weaving Mills Ltd., Trichur.
23. The Hilda Ltd., Floating Workshop, Bombay.
24. The Parry & Co. Ltd., Madras.
25. The Attock Oil Company Ltd., Rawalpindi.
26. The Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Ltd., Madras.
27. The Western India Match Co. Ltd., Madras.
28. The Bombay Gas Co. Ltd., Bombay.
29. The Rajmahal Quartz-Sand and Kaolin Co., Calcutta.
30. The Krishna Mills Ltd., Beawar.
31. The Edward Mills Co. Ltd., Beawar.
32. The Maha Lakshmi Mills Co. Ltd., Beawar.
33. The President, Millowners' Association, Beawar.
34. The Bangalore Woollen, Cotton and Silk Mills, Co., Ltd., Bangalore City.
35. The Central Board of Directors Juggilal Kamlapat Group,
36. The Buyers and Shippers Chamber, Karachi.
37. The Karachi Steam Roller Flour Mills Co. Ltd., Karachi.
38. F. F. Chrestion & Co. Ltd., Domchanch.
39. The Millowners' Association, Bombay.
40. Shree Durga Glass Works, Barang.
41. The Association of Indian Industries, Bombay.
42. The Ahmedabad Millowners' Association, Ahmedabad.
43. The Maharashtra Chamber of Commerce and Industries, Poona.
44. The Employers' Federation of Southern India, Madras.
45. The Maharashtra Chamber of Commerce, Bombay.
46. The Indian Mining Association, Calcutta.
47. The Tata Iron & Steel Co. Ltd., Bombay.
48. The Champion Reef Gold Mines of India Ltd., Champion Reefs.
49. The Silk and Art Silk Mills Association Ltd., Bombay.
50. The Calcutta Match Works (India), Ltd., Kathiar.
51. The Orissa Minerals Development, Co. Ltd., Calcutta.
52. The Bisra Stone Lime Company Ltd., Calcutta.
53. The Bird & Co., Calcutta.
54. The C.P. Manganese Ore Co, Ltd., .Nagpur.
55. The Titaghur Paper Mills Ltd., Calcutta.
56. The Hindustan Vanaspati Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Bombay.
57. The Dhinoj Ginning & Pressing Factory, Dhinoj, Baroda State.
58. Messrs. Lallubhai & H. Ginning & Pressing Factory, Tanakhla,. Baroda State.
59. Baroda Spinning & Weaving Co. Ltd., Baroda.
60. Shree Yamuna Mills Co. Ltd., Baroda.
61. New India Industries Ltd., Baroda.
62. Alembic Chemical Works Co. Ltd., Baroda.
63. Furniture Factory, Baroda.
64. Indian Hume Pipe Co. Ltd., Baroda.
65. Shree Sayaji Mills Co. Ltd., Baroda.
66. The Siddhraj Mills Ltd., Sidhpur, Baroda State.
67. The Lever Brothers (India) Ltd., Bombay.
68. The United Planters' Association of Southern India, Coonoor. 69. Khedat Sahakari Ginning & Pressing Factory Ltd., Baben P. 0. Bardoli, Baroda State.
70. Baroda Industries Ltd., Babhoi, Baroda State.
71. Baroda Industries Ltd., Tanakhla, Baroda State.
72. Gujarat Bobbin Works, Billmora Baroda State.
73. Baroda Industries Ltd., Kaledie, Baroda State.
74. Baroda Industries Ltd., Bodeli, Baroda State.
75. The Petlad Turkey Red Dye Works Co. Ltd., Petlad, Baroda State.
76. Keshay Mills Ltd., Petlad.
77. Jyoti Ltd., Baroda.
78. The Associated Cement Companies Ltd., Bombay.
79. The Tata Oil Mills Co. Ltd., Bombay.
80. The Indian Engineering Association, Calcutta.
81. The Indian Jute Mills Association, Calcutta.
82. The Gaya Sugar Mills Ltd., Gaya.
83. The Millowners1 Association, Indore.
84. The Calcutta Flour Mills, Association, Calcutta.
85. The India Machinery Co., Ltd., Howrah.
86. The Indian Mine Managers' Association, Ukhra.
87. The Indian Colliery Owners'' Association, Jharia.
88. Mazagaon Dock Ltd., Bombay.
89. Mckenzies Ltd., Bombay.
List of Workers' Organisations, Unions' etc., from whom replies to the General Questionnaire were received
1. The Punjab Sooba Mazdoor Committee, Lahore.
2. The Gujarat Regional Trade Union Council, Ahmedabad.
3. The Press Employees Association, Nagpur City.
4. The N.E.W. Mills Worker's Union, Dhariwal.
5. The C.P. & Berar Bidi Majdur Sangh, Nagpur.
6. The Mill Kamdar Mandal, Baroda.
7. The U.P. Provincial Trade Union Council, Lucknow.
8. The Delhi Textile Mazdoor Sabha, Delhi.
9. The Indian Federation of Labour, Delhi.
10. The All-India Trade Union Congress, Bombay.
11. The Colliery Majdur Seva Mandal, Chanda.
12. Khandesh Regional Trade Union, Council, Amalner.
13. The Khamgaon Cotton Ginning and Pressing Factory Labour Association, Khamgaon.
14. The C.P. & Berar Provincial Trade Union Congress Committee.
15. The Chindwara District Colliery Works' Union, Junnoddeo.
16. The Madras Port Trust Employees' Union, Madras.
17. The Karachi Dock Worker's Union, Karachi.
18. The Cigar Worker's Union, Virudhunagar.
19. The Bombay Provincial Trade Union Committee of the AITUC. Bombay.
20. The Madras Harbour Dock Worker's Union, Madras.
21. The Bengal Provincial Trade Union Congress, Calcutta.
22. The Madras Press Labour Union, Madras.
23. The Tuticorin Mill Labourer's Union, Tuticorin.
24. The Madras Provincial Trade Union Congress, Madras.
25. The Sind Provincial Trade Union Congress, Karachi.
26. The Tuticorin Launch Dredger, and all Power Boatmen's Union Tuticorin.
27. The Rajahmundry Trades Union, Council Rajahmundry.
28. The Textile Labour Association, Ahmedabad.
29. The Indore Mazdoor Sabha, Indore.
30. The South Indian Beedi Worker's Union, Madras.
31. The Coal Workers Union, Giridih, Bermo.
List of Municipalities, from whom replies to the General Questionnaire were received
1. The Resident Gadag Betgeri Municipality, Municipal Office, Gadag.
2. The Commissioner, Corporation of Madras, Madras.
3. The Municipal Commissioner for the city of Bombay, Bombay Municipality, Bombay.
4. The Chairman, Committee of Management, Ahmedabad Municipality, Ahmedabad.
5. The Special Officer, Patna City Municipality, Patna.
6. The Chief Officer, Municipal Corporation, Karachi:
7. The Secretary, Municipal Committee, Nagpur.
8. The Chief Executive Officer Corporation of Calcutta, Calcutta.
9. The President, Poona City Municipality," Poona City.
10 The Assistant Secretary, All-India Municipal Worker's Federation, Bombay.
List of private individuals from whom replies to General Questionnaire were
1. Mr. C. B. Parakh, B.A., LL.B. Advocate, Civil Station. Nagpur C.P.
2. Mr. Ram Rattan Gupta, Bihari Niwas, Cawnpore.
The Royal Commission on Labour made 357 recommendations, a summary of which is given in Appendix I to their Report. Some of the recommendations were urgent and capable of early adoption, while others, particularly those which involved legislation, required detailed examination before being implemented. In regard to certain matters, e. g., health and housing, the Commission deliberately took a long view and laid down a policy and a programme ensuring a gradual and progressive advance. While undertaking a preliminary examination of the Report, the Government of India found it convenient to group the recommendations into the following six classes according to the agency responsible for giving effect to them :—
I. Recommendations involving central legislation.
II. Recommendation requiring administrative action by the Government of India.
III. Recommendations involving Provincial legislation.
IV. Recommendations requiring administrative action by Provincial Governments and Administrations.
V. Recommendations requiring action of public bodies, e.g., municipalities, universities, etc.,
VI. Recommendations requiring action by employers and their organisation or by workers' unions.
Statements setting out the recommendations coming under each category were prepared by the Government of India and circulated to various departments and Provincial Governments. The Government of India were to take the initiative as regards the recommendations included in the first two categories. Provincial Governments were to examine recommendations in the III and IV categories and were also required to being to the notice of public bodies and organisations of employers and workers the recommendations included in the V and VI categories and to impress on all concerned the desirability of an early and sympathetic consideration.
A report showing the action taken by the central and provincial Governments in respect of recommendations included in Categories I—IV was published by the Government of India, annually for four years from 1932 to 1935. In 1936 the report showed the action taken by the Central and Provincial Governments in the administrative sphere only. Regarding the recommendations requiring legislative action, the Central Government published in 1937 a Bulletin1 entitled Indian Labour Legislation 1932—37 with special reference to the Recommendations of the Royal Commission on Labour in India and it contains a full account of the action taken by the Central and Provincial Governments up to April, 1937. In 1937 and 1938 the Central Government published reports showing further action taken by them or by Provincial Governments on the recommendations. During war time, however, the Government of India decided to discontinue the preparation and issue of these publications.
F.N. Bulletin No. 61 of Indian Industries and Labour.
As in any future planning of labour legislation it will be of great importance to review the action remaining to be taken on he major recommendations of the Royal Commission on Labour, the Committee have examined the position afresh in the following pages. As far as the action taken by the Provincial Governments is concerned, the information given
in these pages is based on the replies given by them during the years 1943 and 1944 to a communication issued by the Department of Labour on 30th September, 1943.
7. In applying compulsory education,
(a) municipalities should have regard to the special claims of wards inhabited by mill workers;
(b) it is desirable that the upper age-limit should be brought up to at least 1 2 years; and
(c) employers might assist by lending buildings, by equipping schools and in other ways.
In Bihar free and compulsory education has been introduced in all municipalities at district headquarters with the aid. of grants made by the Provincial Government; but no special consideration is shown towards the mill workers. As regards raising the upper age limit, the Bihar Government docs not consider it feasible to take any action; at present because the proposal is primarily made in the interests of the children of factory employees' and there is no compulsion in any factory area in the- province. It further considers that the proposal would necessarily involve additional expense which cannot be met at present; and that fresh legislation will be necessary for which the present times is not opportune.
1. Government. should examine the possibilities of making preparations to deal with unemployment when it arises, and of taking action where it is now required on the lines of the system devised to deal with famine in rural areas.
With a view to dealing adequately with the problem of resettlement and re-employment in civil life of demobilised members of the Armed Services and discharged war workers, the Government of India have Set up an organisation under the Labour Department. A Director-General of Resettlement and Employment has been appointed. He is assisted by six Directors who have either been appointed, or will be shortly appointed, at the headquarters. ! In order to facilitate the registration of the persons concerned and their placement in civil employment the country has been divided into 9 regions. Each region is placed under the charge of a regional Director who will have an advisory committee consisting of representatives of Government department employers' and workers' organisations. At present there are 17 Exchanges functioning and it is expected that by February 1946 their number will be increased to 71.
Steps are also being taken to have legislation for the setting up of the employment machinery. Although the primary function of the Resettlement Organisation is to deal with resettlement and employment of demobilised members of the Defence Services, it is hoped that the organisation will eventually develop into a permanent Employment Service closely integrated with the economic policies for achieving full employment and higher living standards for the people.
The Bihar Government appointed a Committee to examine and report on the nature and extent of unemployment among the educated classes to investigate the possibilities of diverting more educated young men to-industry and to make recommendation for reducing the volume of middle class unemployment. The recommendations of the Committee are being implemented in Bihar as far as practicable. In U. P. no unemployment among the working industrial class exists at present. The Reconstruction Committees in the province are however, taking up the question of unemployment that may arise after the war.
Working Conditions in Factories
26. Every factory should be compelled to maintain separate and sufficient latrine accommodation for males and females and adequate staff to keep them clean.
In U. P. it is proposed to incorporate this recommendation in the factory rules which are under revision by the Provincial Government.
41. An Officer with medical qualifications should be appointed as an Inspector of Factories in every province, part or full time according to the requirements of the province. Certifying Surgeons should be empowered as inspectors.
In the Punjab the under-mentioned medical officers are working as additional inspectors of Factories:—
1. Director of Public Health, Punjab.
2. Assistant Directors of Public Health, Punjab.
3. Medical Officer of Health of Factories and Statistical Officer.
4. Municipal Medical Officer of Health.
5. Assistant Health Officers of the Labour Corporation.
In the C. P. & Berar as health and sanitation in factories is looked after by Civil Surgeons who have been appointed additional Inspectors under the Factories Act, the Provincial Government considers that in view of the shortage of medical men at present, the appointment of an Inspector with medical qualifications is not an urgent necessity. It proposes to take up this question after the war.
43. (a) Women Factory Inspectors are desirable in every province.
(b) Women inspectors should be of Indian domicile and not less than, 25 years of age, and their pay should be adequate to attract the right type.
(c) If this be not immediately practicable, immediate appointment is recommended in Bengal and Madras and for a limited period, of part-time women officials in provinces where there are fewer women and children in regulated industries.
A woman Assistant Inspector of Factories has been appointed in Madras. In Bengal, it is not considered necessary at present to appoint a woman Factory Inspector, as the employment of women in factories is gradually decreasing. The C. P. Government has, at present. under consideration the question of appointing a woman Factory Inspector.
44. Boiler inspection should be separated from factory inspection.
This recommendation has been accepted by the Government of U. P. and the necessary action has been taken with effect from 1st April 1944.
110. The Jharia and Asansol boards of Health should be called Boards of Health and Welfare and each should be enlarged so as to give increased representation to employers and to include representatives of the workers chosen where possible in consultation with their organisations, and at least one woman member.
In Bengal consideration of the Bill covering this recommendation has been held in abeyance. In Bihar the labour is, at present, represented in Jharia Mines Board of Health by one official, namely, the Commissioner of Labour, Bihar, and one non-official.
119. In mechanical workshops the system of recruitment through labour bureaux is capable of development and together with the system of selection boards or committees would go far to remove grounds of com-plaint of favouritism and bribery in regard to recruitment and promotion.
This system is in force on the N. W. Railway. Other railways which did not have the system did not wish to introduce it as they found the current system satisfactory. The Railway Board does not also wish to enforce any particular system unless there was a clear necessity to do so. The development of Labour exchanges, and Employment Bureaux on other railways will probably receive closer attention after the return to normal conditions when the Railway Department will be in a better position to re-examine the question in the light of past experience and the soundness of the organisation proposed.
129. On completion of one year's continuous services all employees, should be eligible to join a provident fund, membership being optional for those drawing under Rs. 20, compulsory for those drawing Rs. 20 or over per mensem.
During recent years the Railway Board has extended the fund benefits, to a considerable number of staff. With effect from 1-7-44 staff with 3 years' service and over, irrespective of pay, are given the option of subs-scribing to the State Railway Provident Fund, while permanent non-pensionable inferior Railway servants whose monthly emoluments are more than Rs. 30 and other Railway servants whose monthly emoluments are less than Rs. 20 but not less than Rs. 15 irrespective of the period of their service are eligible to subscribe to the fund. Further, permanent non-pensionable inferior servants whose monthly emoluments are Rs. 30 or less but have completed 3 years' continuous service can contribute to the Fund and similarly non-pensionable permanent servants other than inferior whose monthly emoluments are less than Rs. 15 but who have completed 3 years' continuous service can contribute to the Fund.
153. In regard to statistics,
(a) nomenclature should be standardised;
(b) figures should be available (i) of salaries and wages separate from provident fund contributions and gratuities; (ii) of contractors' labour in different branches;
(c) statistics of labour turnover, and absenteeism (showing whether due to sickness or otherwise) should be maintained and analysed.
F.N. 34—2 Lab./56
The position at present is as below:—
(a) The number and cost of railway staff are now maintained and shown in the Annual Report published by the Railway Board under the following categories for various branches of railway services, viz ;—
(i) Gazetted Officers;
(ii) Subordinates drawing pay of Rs. 250 per mensem and over or on scales of pay rising to Rs. 250 per mensem and over. it they are on the old scales of pay and on scales of pay rising to Rs. 200 p. m. and over if they are on the new scales of pay.
(iii) Subordinates on old scales of pay rising to Rs. 249 per mensem but not to Rs. 250 p. m. or over and subordinates on new scales of pay rising to Rs. 199 p. m. but not to Rs. 200 p.m. or over.
(iv) Daily rated labour of all Departments and inferior staff of the Mechanical Department, and
(v) Inferior staff of all Departments other than the Mechanical Department.
(b) The costs of the various grades of staff are shown under separate heads, i.e., salaries, provident fund and gratuity. It has not been found practicable to maintain separate statistics of contractors' labour.
(c) In view of the additional cost involved and the conditions brought about by the War it has not been found practicable to give effect to the entire recommendation.
TRANSPORT SERVICES AND PUBLIC WORKS
161. Consideration should be given to the provision in ports of welfare institutions for Indian seamen.
No action was taken on this recommendation prior to 144. Since, then the following machinery has been established by Government for seamen's welfare:—
(a) Central Seamen's Welfare Board with its headquarters at Delhi The Board is empowered to advise Government on all questions concerning seamen's welfare. (b) Port Welfare Committees whose main function is to co-ordinate all welfare activities for seamen at the individual ports.
(c) Directorate of Seamen's Welfare which supervises on behalf of Government all semen's welfare activities throughout India and which is charged with the planning of seamen's welfare on a long term basis.
(d) Seamen's Welfare Officers who take an active interest in the health, recreation, club facilities, sleeping accommodation and provision of amenities both ashore and afloat.
For Indian seaman, Seamen's Homes or Clubs providing residential accommodation and other facilities have been opened at Calcutta, Bombay, Karachi and Madras, At Vizagapatam, there is a Merchant Navy Club which provides meals light refreshments and games, but has no residential accommodation. Hospital facilities have also been provided at Calcutta and Bombay.
163. The practice of nominating a representative of labour on Port Trusts should be extended to all the major ports.
Provision exists in the Bombay, Karachi and Madras Port Trust Acts for the appointment of a representative of labour on the respective Port Trust Boards. As regards Calcutta Port, it has been decided to include such a provision in the Calcutta Port Act when it is next amended but the present is not regarded as an opportune time for undertaking an amendment of that Act. With regard to Chittagong Port, it has been decided that it is not necessary to have a labour representative on the Port Commission. At Vizagapatam and Cochin no Port Trust Boards have been constituted.
164. With a view to decasualisation and to secure more equitable distribution of employment, a system of registration of dock labour should be introduced in each of the main ports, supervised and controlled by the port authority assisted by representatives of shipowners, a stevedores and labourers.
While it is considered that the present is not an opportune time for introducing a decasualisation scheme, Government are not opposed to the recommendation and have even encouraged such steps as can be taken towards decasualisation . Thus, at Madras, under the new arrangements made by the Port Trust Board- with their labour contractors a minimum monthly income of Rs. 20 has been guaranteed for 400 shore labourers. The introduction of rationing and the organised distribution of foodstuffs at concessional or controlled rates have also facilitated registration of dock labour. At Bombay the Toliwalla labourers have, as a result of the grant of grain concessions, been induced to register themselves. At Karachi the award of the arbitrator in respect of the opening of registration offices for stevedore labour has been accepted.
166. (a) The normal daily hours prescribed by law should be nine; with overtime permissible up to three hours;
(b) Payment for each hour of overtime should be required at not Jess than 33 1/3 percent. over the ordinary rates;
(c) The minimum age of employment should be raised to 14 years;
(d) Enforcement should been entrusted to the factory inspection department.
The consideration of part (b) of the recommendation has been postponed pending a decision on the Commission's recommendation regarding decasualisation and registration of dock labour.
Part (c) of the recommendation has been implemented by the Employment of Children Act 1938 which came into force on the 1st December 1938 and which prohibits the employment of children under 15 inter alia in any occupation involving the handling of goods within the limits of any port subject to any provisions of the Indian Ports Act, 1908. The-enforcement of the Act has been entrusted to Inspectors specially appointed for the purpose.
173. Before minimum wage-fixing machinery can be set up:—
(a) the industries in which there is a strong presumption that the conditions warrant detailed investigation should be selected,
(b) a survey of conditions in each such industry should be undertaken as the basis on which it should be decided whether the fixing of a minimum wage is desirable and practicable,
(c) the trade should be demarcated and the composition and number of the Wage Boards should be decided, and
(d) as much as possible of the information likely to be needed by the Wage Boards, if appointed, should be collected,
174. When a decision has been reached as to whether the conditions in any case justify the setting up of machinery, particular attention must be given to the cost of enforcement and the policy of gradualness should not be lost sight of.
175. The industries referred to in Chapter VII should be examined in the first instance with a view to the need and possibility of instituting minimum wage-fixing machinery.
176. If the results of investigation show the need for minimum wage-fixing machinery in industries of this kind the necessary legislation for setting up such machinery should be undertaken.
The Bihar Labour Enquiry Committee in their more important recommendations Nos. 75 and 76 laid down the scale of minimum wages (l) for Jamshedpur, (2) for Collieries, (3) for Lime-Stone and Iron ore quarries, (4) for Metallurgical engineering etc. and (5) for Sugar Factories in Bihar. The Committee also recommended that minimum wages for workers in Mica mine should be fixed after an enquiry and minimum wage legislation should be extended to other industries if it had been found to work satisfactorily. The matter is still under consideration of the Bihar Government which has decided that the detailed investigation should be undertaken by the Commissioner of Labour, Bihar. The question is under consideration of the Government of C. P. and Berar in consultation with their Labour Commissioner. No action has been taken in other provinces but some of the Provincial Governments presume that the action will be taken in this matter on an all-India basis as a result of the report to be submitted by the Labour Investigation Committee and the recommendations to be made by the Social Security Committee proposed to be appointed by the Government of India.
This question has also been engaging the active attention of the Government of India for the last few years. It was discussed at the third meeting of the Standing Labour Committee in May 1943, at the Labour Conference in September 1943, at the fourth meeting of the Standing Labour Committee in January 1944 and Sixth Labour Conference in October 1944. It is Felt that the need of some legislation in India on this subject at the present juncture is heightened on account of the necessity for affording protection Co the large numbers of demobilised personnel and discharged war workers seeking employment in industries against a progressive lowering of wages which will be the inevitable tendency when, as seems likely, the supply of labour will be considerably in excess of demand- The Government of India have prepared a draft bill which is due to be discussed at the Seventh Labour Conference proposed to be held at New Delhi on the 27th and 28th November 1945.
HEALTH AND WELFARE OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORKERS
193. Municipal councils and local bodies should devote more attention to vital statistics and at least in the larger towns and more important industrial areas the appointment of medical registrars should be compulsory.
In U. P. the Municipal Boards in important towns have been advised to appoint medical registrars for registration of vital statistics but the Provincial Government does not propose for the duration of the war to use compulsion. In Orissa a Public Health Code contemplating to have unified and better method of recording vital statistics is under compilation. In Assam also a proposal to evolve a better method of collection of vital statistics is under consideration in connection with the re-organisation of the Public Health Department.
194. India should have an Institute of Nutrition, as recommended by the Agricultural Commission with a Director and sufficient number of qualified assistants. Publicity work should be part of its functions, propaganda material being prepared under supervision of the Director in consultation with provincial Public Health Departments.
A well equipped Central Institute of Nutrition has been established at Conoor under the auspices of the Indian Research Fund Association. The Institute works under the direction of Dr. Aykroyd and his staff of Special Nutrition Officers. Intensive training classes have been held at the Institute annually and since 1937 some 123 pupils have passed and are now employed as part-time Nutrition Officers in Bengal, Bihar and the Punjab and in the States of Baroda and Hyderabad (Decan). Twenty-nine Officers were also trained in a short special course held in 1945. Useful work has been done by the trained Staff in connection with the diet surveys. Publicity work is part of the functions of the Institute and propaganda material is prepared under the supervision of the Director in consultation with provincial Public Health Departments.
196. Adulteration of Foods Acts should be in force in all provinces and local Governments should endeavour to make their provisions more widely applicable. Severer penalties should be provided and a clause regulating importation and sale of condensed skimmed milk should, if possible, be incorporated.
The Bombay Prevention of Adulteration Act has been in force in Bombay, Ahmedabad, Surat, Borach, Dhulia, Amalner, Sholapur, Ahmed-nagar, Kurla, Hubli, Kapadwanj, Thana and Poona City. The provisions of the Act have been extended to Godhra, Nasik, Belgaum, Pandharpur, Nadiad, Ankleshwar, Umreth, Ghatkopar and Dharwar and are being extended to Ville, Parle, Andheri Trimbak Barsi and other towns. As regards skimmed milk the Director of Industries has been asked to submit proposals for manufacture of dry milk products on a commercial scale. The Director's report is awaited. The Madras Prevention of Adulteration Act, 1918, is now in force in all mofussil areas in the province and also in one hundred Panchayat areas. The Government Analyst's staff in the King Institute, Guindy has been strengthened and extensions of the Act to Panchayat areas are sanctioned whenever necessary on the recommendations of the Public Health authorities. The question of enacting a comprehensive legislation for the prevention of adulteration of all articles including food-staffs is under the consideration of the Government.
Similarly an omnibus Bill on the subject has been drafted by the Sind Government. The Coorg Pure Food Act, 1940 was brought into force in the various local areas in Coorg with effect from 1st November, 1941.
197. In Industrial provinces Public Health Departments should be strengthened to deal with industrial hygiene arid industrial disease; at least one of the Assistant Directors of Public Health should have special knowledge of these subjects.
In Sind the knowledge of most of the industrial disease forms apart of training of the officers of the Public Health Department of the rank of Assistant Director of Public Health. The Assistant Director of Public Health, Sind, being an ex-Officio Inspector of Factories, brings to the notice of the factory owners, during his inspections, any defects which are likely to affect adversely the health of the workers.
199 Industrial health research should be entrusted to the Indian Research Fund Association.
In December 1931, the Scientific Advisory Board considered the Royal Commission's recommendations and noted as follows:—
"The Board, in accordance with the request of the Department of Education, Health and Lands having considered recommendation 199 of the Royal Commission on Labour proposing that industrial health research be entrusted to the Indian Re-search Fund Association was of opinion that there should be a bureau under the Central Government to deal with industrial health. The Indian Research Fund Association would gladly cooperate with such a bureau in carrying out any research or, researches which might be necessary provided that additional funds were placed at its disposal to do so."
This was endorsed by the Governing Body of the Indian Research Fund Association in March 1932 but it has not so far been possible to implement the recommendation of the Royal Commission. An Industrial Health Calcutta the Subject of physiological Hygiene included in 1939 Health Advisory Committee has been set up in 1945 which has already held its first meeting. This step may be expected to lead to research into special problems affecting industrial health. The Indian Research Fund Association has, however, been able to carry out independently enquiries. some of which are detailed below:—
(a) Cholera enquiry by Dr. Tomb in the Asansol Mines between the years 1925-26 and 1930-31.
(b) Anaemia in women employed in Assam Tea Gardens by Dr. Margaret Balfour between the years 1926-27 and 1930-51.
(c) Anaemia in women employed in Assam Tea Gardens by Dr. I. E. Napier between the years 1935-36 and 1941-42.
(d) The general problem of tuberculosis which has received considerable attention for some years from the Indian Research Fund Association was specifically investigated by Dr. Ukil in an enquiry which began in 1927-28 and continued to 1042-43. This last enquiry was of a general nature bat it has included a certain amount of work in connection with the health of industrial workers. The complete report has not yet been received.
It may be added that at the All-India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Calcutta, the subject of physiological hygiene was included in 1939 in the curriculum of students studying for the Diploma of Public Health. The Section of the Institute which deals with this subject is now called the Section of Biochemistry, Nutrition and Physiological Hygiene and in order that it may have facilities of investigating problems of industrial health among Indian workers, the Government of India permitted Dr. M. N. Rao, a Demonstrator in the Section, to accept a Study Fellowship from the Rockfeller Foundation. Dr. Rao has completed his course in the United States and has returned to the Institute where he has been appointed as an Assistant Professor of Industrial and Physiological Hygiene-Work on the problems in which Dr. Rao has received special training has already been started and arrangements are being considered for the training of persons for work in the industrial health field.
200. (a) Women should be appointed to public health staffs particularly in the more industrialised provinces.
(b) Initiative in welfare work among women and children should be taken by local Governments.
(c) Every provincial Public Health Department should have a trained statistical officer.
(d) Health propaganda should be carried on by Government and local authorities.
(e) Every municipal area should have its own Medical Officer of Health and adequate sanitary staff.
(f) Municipal health officers should belong to a Government cadre though paid by municipal funds.
(g) A similar health staff should be at work in extra-municipal areas where industry is being developed.
In Sind the Government pay grants-in-aid to certain private hospitals, maternity homes etc. The Sind Nurses, Mid-wives, Health Visitors Registration Act, 1939, has been passed to provide for the registration and better training of nurses, mid-wives, health visitors and dais. In Coorg a Public Health Department has been constituted for the whole of Coorg under the control of the Civil Surgeon, Coorg. In Assam out of the 11 existing rural Health Inspectors, nine belong to the Public Health Department of Assam Government.
201. Comprehensive Public Health Acts should be passed in all provinces.
The Bills on this subject have been drafted by the Governments of Bombay, Bengal, Orissa and U. P. but their further consideration has been held in abeyance for various reasons. An Act has been passed in Coorg known as the Coorg Public Health Act, 1943, and certain portions of the Act have been applied to certain local areas with effect from 1st January, 1944.
203. (a) Every provincial health department should include a malariologist on its headquarters staff.
(b) Every railway administration should employ a full-time. malariologist and should give a lead in anti-malarial activities to the focal bodies. in their areas.
(c) Boards of Health and Welfare in mining areas should include on their medical staff an officer with expert knowledge of malaria and its prevention.
Malariologist have been attached to the Public Health establishment in Madras and Sind. In Assam the advice and assistance of the malariologist of the Assam Medical Research Society is availed of by the Public Health Department when necessary. In Coorg the Assistant Health Officer has received special training in malariology.
204. Surveys should be made by Government medical departments of the medical facilities required in urban and industrial areas. These surveys should be considered at joint conferences of the parties interested.
Public Health Acts and percentage grants so should enable Government to supervise, inspect and insist on minimum standards.
No such surveys have so far been undertaken by most of the Provincial Governments. It is, however, hoped that as a result of the survey made by the Health Survey and Development Committee appointed by the Government of India and the Health Insurance scheme which is at present under consideration of the Government of India, adequate medical facilities will be available to urban and industrial areas in due course.
206. A hospital of any size should have a woman doctor on its staff who should be in charge of all activities dealing with the health and welfare of women and children.
In Sind lady doctors have been appointed at all civil hospitals except Jakobabad. In Coorg a lady Sub-Assistant Surgeon has been appointed permanently at the Virajapet hospital. In U. P. medical needs of women are catered for by Duffering hospitals which exist in all important towns and cities of the province.
209. In the larger industrial areas Government, Local authorities and industrial managements should co-operate in the development of child welfare centres and women's clinics Government should give percentage grants for approved schemes.
In Madras in recent years local bodies have shown greater appreciation of the importance of maternity and child welfare work and Government is encouraging them and helping them to stabilise their work by giving half grants for the construction of centres and maintenance grants at the rate of one-fourth of the actual expenditure incurred by them on maternity and child welfare work. Madras Government also proposes to instruct the Director of Public Health (who is consulted by the local bodies in this respect) to see that when local bodies open new centres the need of Industrial areas is also considered. The Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited has under consideration a scheme in consultation with the Officers of the Bihar Government. In Orissa efforts are being made generally to establish child welfare and maternity centres through local organisation and to consolidate the work in the existing centres.
210. Trained mid-wives should be obtained for work in welfare and maternity centres.
In Sind schemes for the training of 40 mid-wives and 10 assistant mid-wives have been approved and put into operation. In Assam 119 trained nurses and mid-wives were employed for this purpose during the year 1942.
In Coorg 4 village women are being trained in mid-wifery every year.
211. Maternity benefit legislation should be enacted throughout India on the lines of the schemes operating in Bombay and the Central Provinces.
(a) Legislation should be confined to women employed full time in perennial factories covered by the Factories Act.
(b) The1 scheme should be non-contributory; in the first instance the entire cost of benefit should be borne by the employer.
(c) Government should have power to exempt individual firms whose existing schemes are at least as liberal as those contained in the Act.
(d) In the event of any general scheme of social insurance being adopted, maternity benefits should be incorporated and the cost shared by the State, the employer and the worker.
(e) The rate of benefit given by the Central Provinces Act is suitable for general application.
(f) The maximum benefit period should be 4 weeks before and weeks after child birth.
(g) The qualifying period should in no case be less than 9 months and might be fixed at 12 months.
(h) The more closely benefit can be linked with treatment the better probably the best method is to give benefit in any case and to add a confinement bonus only if a trained mid-wife or hospital treatment is utilised. Failure to use existing facilities should not disqualify the applicant, but bonus and benefit together should not exceed the amount laid down in the Act.
(i) The administration of the Act should be entrusted to the factory inspection staff and, wherever possible, to women factory inspectors.
Maternity benefit legislation has now been enacted in the provinces of Madras, Bombay, Bengal, Orissa, Assam, C. P. and Berar and Sind. To Bombay Act, 1929, with certain modifications, has been extended to Ajmer-Merwara and Delhi. The Bihar Government is considering the enactment of a maternity benefit legislation on the lines of the Maternity, benefit Acts passed in other provinces. The Central Government has passed an Act entitled the Mines Maternity Benefit Act, 1941, to provide for payment of maternity benefit to women employed in the Mines.
212. All methods should be explored that may lead to the alleviation of existing hardships arising from the need of provision for sickness.
(a) Material should first be collected for the framing of an estimate of the incidence of sickness among workers, special statistical inquiries being instituted in selected centres as soon as possible :
(b) Assistance might be obtained from (i) railways and Government factories, (ii) employers who already have sickness benefit schemes,
(iii) experiments voluntarily conducted by employers;
(c) The statistics should be collected with expert medical and actuarial advice and the co-operation of employers and representatives of workers.
(d) The preliminary enquiries might be conducted by the Government of India who might secure for the purpose of a small informal committee from the Central Legislature including representatives of capital and labour. These with medical actuarial and statistical assistance should be able to advise as to the nature of statistics required, the centres where they might be collected, the sources from which, and the means whereby, they should be obtained.
(e) Thereafter the question of framing schemes should be referred to a formal committee with instructions to examine the material and to make recommendations for the institution, if and where possible, of definite schemes.
(f) Pursuing the line of building on existing foundations the Commission commend for examination the outline of tentative scheme based on separate medical provision, possibly by Government, and financial benefits in the form of paid sick leave given through employers on the basis of contributions by themselves and by the workers.
Prof. B. P. Adarkar was appointed as Officer on Special Duty, Sickness Insurance, on the 16th March 1943. A penal of advisers (representing Employers and Workers) was appointed to assist and advise him and an Actuarial Committee was also appointed for this purpose. In the light of the discussions with the Panel of Advisers and Actuaries, he prepared a comprehensive report on Health Insurance for industrial workers in August 1944. This report was considered in a preliminary way partly at the Sixth Labour Conference held in October 1944 and more fully at the meeting of the Standing Labour Committee held in March 1945. Labour Department also had the expert guidance of Messrs. M. Stack (Chief of Social Insurance Services) and R. Rao (Chief of the Asiatic Services) of the International Labour Office. In the light of discussions with them as also with the Health Survey and Development Committee and the Education, Health and Land Department, a revised, integrated scheme of health insurance, workmen's compensation and maternity benefit was prepared by the Labour Department with particular reference to workers employed in perennial factories. A copy of the scheme was circulated to the Provincial Governments in May 1945 for opinion. Comments from the Provincial Governments have been received and draft bill is under preparation. The scheme inter alia covers Employment Injury Benefit (generally known as Workmen's Compensation) but its scope is limited to factory workers only. The workmen's Compensation Act is much wider in scope and extends to a large number of categories other than the factory workers who will receive better treatment by the introduction of the Unified Scheme. For the sake of uniformity it is desirable to provide benefits similar to those stipulated under the Unified Scheme to Category of non-factory workers by suitable amendment of the Workmen's Compensation Act.
It is therefore intended that legislation should be introduced in two parts, viz. (a) a Bill to provide a Unified Scheme of Social Insurance and (b) a Bill to amend the Workmen's Compensation Act in a suitable manner.
HOUSING OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORKERS
320. (a) Provincial Governments should make a survey of urban and industrial areas to ascertain their needs in regard to housing.
(b) They should then arrange for conferences with all interested parties in order that decisions may be taken as to practicable schemes and the method whereby their cost could be shared.
(c) Local authorities should be responsible for the development and lay out of industrial areas and for the provision and maintenance of proper sanitary conditions.
(d) Where suitable. Government land is available, Government should be prepared to sell or lease it to those who agree to build houses within specified period.
(e) Government should announce their willingness to subsidise in this or other ways employers' housing schemes approved by them.
In Bihar the question of the housing of industrial workers was not taken up for consideration until 1940 when the Bihar Labour Enquiry Committee dealt with this important question and made several recommendations., At these recommendations will ential an extensive enquiry, the Commissioner of Labour Bihar, has been asked to undertake the work as, soon as possible. In U. P. the Provincial Government proposes to undertake the necessary survey after the War so as to have a correct picture: of the actual state of affairs. In Sind a family budget enquiry has been held and this will provide some statistical data regarding housing conditions in working class localities in Karachi. Housing conditions have been surveyed by the Labour Investigation Committee also in 34 industries in which ad hoc surveys have been carried out.
222. Town Planning Acts are urgently required in the Bombay and Bengal Presidencies and would be useful in other provinces; if the Madras-Act is ineffective it should be made adequate.
These Acts should provide for the acquisition and lay-out of suitable areas for working class housing: the opening up and reconstruction of congested and insanitary areas: Government grants and loans to approved schemes: the 'zoning' of industrial and urban areas.
The Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915, has been amended so as to enable municipalities to prepare scheme for opening up congested and insanitary areas. The recommendations of the Kale Committee on the question of modernising housing legislation, relating to the clearance and improvement of slum areas and introduction of housing schemes for the poorer classes were considered by Government and it has been decided that any scheme of improvement on a larger scale cannot be taken up without the enactment of a Special Housing Act and without Government subsidies. In view of the fact that any such legislation would be of a controvenial nature it has been decided that its enactment should be postponed until the parliamentary form of Government is restored. ln Madras the question of enacting legislation providing for an Improvement.
Trust for the city of Madras is under the active consideration of Government. The Trust when set up will tackle the problem of housing the poor. The U. P. Town Improvement Act, 1919, contains sufficient provisions for town planning. There are also many provisions in the U. P. Municipalities Act which enable Municipal Boards to undertake many of the functions of town planning . The U. P. Government has also constituted a Development Board for Cawnpore to look after the development of the city. In Coorg there is a chapter in the Coorg public Health Act for controlling construction of buildings and therefore no further action is considered necessary. Moreover, there are no industrial workers on a large scale in Coorg except in estates where the employers see to the housing of the workers.
228. Every effort should be made to evolve cheaper types of houses,
Government might consider the possibility of offering prizes for plans and specifications of working class houses costing not more than a fixed amount.
In U. P. plans for cheap houses have been evolved in connection with the workmen's quarters in ordnance factories and steps are being taken to make such plans available to the public in particular to Improvement Trusts, municipalities and employers' associations.
235.(a) Steps should be taken to ensure that the agreement to pay compensation in accordance with the Indian Act is obligatory on all shipowners engaging Indian seamen and that dependants are capable of enforcing this agreement.
(b) The possibilities of giving Indian seamen the right to compensation whilst serving oh ships registered outside India should be further explored by the Government of India and the Home Office. Special attention should be given to the possibility of extending the Act to Indian seamen whilst serving on all ships within India's territorial waters and on British ships engaged in the coastal trade of India.
The proposal involves an amendment of the Indian Merchant Shipping Acts, and the question of enacting necessary legislation is under consideration of the Government of India along with several other proposals for the amendment of the Acts.
272. The possibility of establishing permanent courts in place of ad hoc tribunals under the Act should be examined.
The recommendation is under the consideration of the Government of India in connection with other proposals for revising the Act.
274. Every provincial Government should have an officer or officers whose duty it would be to undertake the work of conciliation and to bring the parties privately to agreement.
The Bombay Trade Disputes Conciliation Act, 1934, has been repealed and the Bombay Industrial Disputes Act, 1938, has been in operation since June 1939. The Act has so far been made applicable to the Cotton textile Industry in Bombay City and to the woollen textile industry in Bombay City and Thana. Under the Act, the Commissioner of Labour acts as Chief Conciliator and 3 Assistant Commissioners of Labour as Conciliators. Sometimes special Conciliators also are appointed. Only factories employing 20 or more persons are covered by the Act.
As far as other industries and factories are concerned, the Commissioner of labour and an Assistant Commissioner of Labour try to bring about settlement of disputes between employers and employees by having informal negotiations with the parties. In U. P. the Provincial Government have appointed a whole time Conciliation Officer. In the Central Provinces the Government has appointed a Labour Commissioner in 1942 who performs these duties.
Health and Welfare in Plantations
297. On all plantations managers should be required to maintain birth and death registers, and by inspection Government should ensure that these are reasonably accurate.
In Madras, the question of amending the Registration of Births and Deaths Act in this regard is under consideration. In Coorg under the Coorg Registration of Births and Deaths Act 1932, which has been extended throughout Coorg, managers of plantations are required to send statistic of birth and deaths in the prescribed forms to the patels of the villages concerned who are to keep the registers of births and deaths under the Act. But the Managers are not maintaining births arid deaths registers as recommended by the Commission. As the existing practice is working satisfactorily no further action is considered necessary by the Chief Commissioner, Coorg.
302. Standard minimum requirements in regard to plinths, floor and cubic space, light and ventilation should be prescribed by the competent authority which should have the power to condemn insanitary houses. Standard type plans to suit varying conditions should also be prepared and made available to garden managements.
In Coorg, the Chief Commissioner states that the owners of estates have as far as possible been effecting improvements to the houses of labourers and does not consider that any further legislation is necessary in this direction.
309. Maternity benefits should be provided for by legislation. The cash benefit to the mother should ordinarily take the form of half her daily wage for a period of 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after child birth. In addition to bonus of Rs. 5 should be given, except where the woman refuses to avail herself of the skilled services of a woman doctor or a trained mid-wife provided by the employer. In the case of plantation labour the condition of a qualifying period of employment should be dispensed with.
The Bengal (Tea Plantations) Maternity Benefit Bill has been passed by the Bengal Legislative Council and is now awaiting its passage through the Bengal Legislative Assembly. The Madras Government have decided to watch for sometime the working of the Madras Maternity Benefit Act before undertaking such legislation for plantation labour. A maternity Benefit Act which also covers plantations has been passed in Assam in 1944 and has become fully operative from 1st September 1945, on which date the rules under the Act came into force.
Emigration of Indian Labour to Burma
323. If any other industry finds it necessary to recruit in India, it should repatriate the; recruited worker as soon as it ceases to pay him his normal wages.
325. There should be a medical inspection of emigrants in India before embarkation.
329. Assisted emigration should be controlled with a view to ensuring that the emigrant is guaranteed maintenance for a reasonable period or repatriation.
330. As soon as a decision has been taken regarding the constitutional position of Burma, the question of immigration should be examined by the Government of India and Burma in consultation with all the interests concerned.
The whole question of future Indian immigration into Burma, including that of the Indian labour is at present the subject matter of negotiations between the Governments of India and Burma. It is proposed that all
evacuees from Burma, including labourers, "should be allowed to return to Burma. In the case of such evacuee labourers it is not proposed to put any impediments or conditions regarding their return. It is further proposed that in future emigration of unskilled labour from India to Burma should be on a quota basis, quotas being fixed by the Burma Government in accordance with the needs of Burma and on the advice of an Emigration Board of an agreed composition. Further such emigration is proposed to be allowed only if such terms of employment are assured to the labourers as are agreed to between the Governments of India and Burma.
Statistics and Administration
341. Whenever possible, investigators engaged on family budget enquiries should receive a course of training with the Bombay Labour Office or some other office which has conducted a successful enquiry.
In Sind an Assistant in the Labour Commissioner's office has received a course of training at the Bombay Labour Office. The Investigators will be working under his guidance.
346. (a) Thorough family budget enquiries should be undertaken in Delhi, Madras, Cawnpore, Jamshedpur and a centre in the Jharia coalfield.
(6) As soon as circumstances permit, the possibility of extending the activities of the Labour Statistics Bureau in Burma to the main oilfields should be considered.
(c) Assistance should be given by the Government of the Punjab to the Board of Economic Enquiry to enable it to institute and direct investigations in the industrial field.
(d) The possibility of establishing a Board of Economic Enquiry in the Central Provinces similar to that in Punjab should be investigated.
Enquiries were undertaken in Madras, Bihar and Cawnpore in the years 1935, 1936, and 1938-39 respectively by the Provincial Governments concerned. As a result of the recommendations made by the Rao Court of enquiry, family budget enquiries are being undertaken by the Director, Cost of Living , in all the centres with the exception of Madras recommended by the Royal Commission.
347. (a) A Labour Commissioner responsible for the administration at labour subjects should be appointed in every province except Assam.
(b) He should be a selected officer and should hold the appointment for a comparatively long period.
(c) He should be responsible for the publication of labour statistics, should have the right to enter all industrial establishment, should be generally accessible both to employers and labour should act as a conciliation officer,
(d) The headquarters of the Labour Commissioner should be in the chief industrial centre of the province.
(e) In provinces where part time appointments have to be made, a combination of the functions of the Director of Industries and of the Labour Commissioner should be avoided.
Labour Commissioners have been appointed in all provinces except Punjab, Orissa and N.W.F.P. In Bengal the Labour Commissioner has been authorised under the Industrial Statistics Act to collect labour statistics.
352. Where there is a substantial industrial population, it should receive, by means of a franchise or in some other way, the power to exercise an adequate influence over the policy of local self governing bodies.
In Madras proposals for implementing the recommendation so far as the local bodies other than the Corporation of Madras are concerned are under consideration. In the case of the Corporation of Madras, representation for industrial labour is secured by the reservation of two seats for labour and by making the electoral rolls of the special labour constituencies of the Madras Legislative Assembly applicable to the conduct of the elections of these two reserved seats.
Appointment of a Labour Commission for the Central Government 348. A Labour Commissioner should be appointed for the Central Government.
The Government of India have established a machinery to deal with industrial relations in industries and undertakings falling within their sphere namely:—
(i) All industrial establishments owned or controlled by the Government of India;
(ii) Federal Railways;
(iii) Mines and Oilfields; and (iv) Major Ports.
The organisations consist of the following:—
(i) A chief Labour Commissioner (Central) with headquarters at New Delhi.
(ii) Three Regional Labour Commissioners (Central) with headquarters at Bombay, Calcutta and Lahore, respectively.
(iii) A Deputy Labour Commissioner (headquarters) at New Delhi.
(iv) Nine Conciliation Officers and 23 Labour Inspectors (Central) located at various centres throughout India.
(v) One Central Inspector of Industrial Canteens (to be appointed shortly).
The function and powers of the new organisation are detailed below:—
(a) Industrial relations and conciliation.—These include in particular, assistance in the formation and maintenance of voluntary machinery in industrial establishments prevention
and settlement of trade disputes, and maintenance of continuous touch with the state of relations between employers and workers.
(b) Labour welfare (excluding welfare in coal mines for which a separate organisation exists under the Coal Mines Welfare Commissioner), including examination of welfare measures and advice to employers and Governments in connection therewith. The Central Inspector of Industrial Canteens will inspect and advise on the setting up of canteens in undertaking under the control of the Central Government.
(c) Operation of labour laws to the extent to which their administration is the responsibility of the Central Government (except in so far as separate machinery has been provided).
(d) Maintenance of information regarding wage rates and conditions of work.
The Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) the Regional Labour Commissioners (Central) and the Conciliation Officers (Central) have been vested with statutory powers of conciliation under section 18A of the Trade Disputes Act, 1929. The Chief and Regional Labour Commissioners have also been appointed as Supervisors of Railway Labour under the Indian Railways Act, 1890 and as Inspectors under the Payment of Wages Act, 1936. They have also been authorised to act under the Employment of Children Act, 1938, for Federal Railways and major ports.
Relation to existing machinery.—(i) Conciliation Officer (Railways) and Supervisor of Railways Labour— Hitherto the Conciliation Officer (Railways) has been responsible for conciliation work on the following Railways only : East Indian, Bengal and Assam, Bengal Nagpur and Calcutta Port Commissioners' Railways. Hereafter, the Chief Labour Commissioners (Central) and his officers will be responsible for conciliation on all Federal Railways and for administration of the Hours of Employment Regulations under the Railways Act. The Conciliation Officer (Railways) and Supervisor of Railway Labour and the Deputy Supervisor of Railway Labour have ceased to have separate existence.
(2) Labour Welfare Adviser and Assistant Labour Welfare Advisers— (a) the Assistant Labour Welfare Advisers have been designated as Conciliation Officers (Central) and will work under the Regional Labour Commissioners (Central).
(b) The post of Labour Welfare Adviser has since been abolished.
Relationship of the industrial relations machinery to the administrative machinery of departments and establishments.
Labour Officers (or Labour Welfare Officers, Civilian Labour Officer etc.) in individual establishments will continue to function under their respective establishments or administrations. The Chief Labour Commissioner (Central), and his officers will maintain close liaison with the administrative machinery of various Departments and establishments.
353. (a) In the frame-work of the future constitution, provisions should be made for an organisation (the Industrial Council), which would
enable representatives of employers, of labour and of Governments to meet regularly in conference to discuss labour measures and labour policy.
(b) The council should be sufficiently representative but not 'too large. The representatives of labour should be elected by registered trade unions, and where there are no registered trade unions of any size they should be nominated by Government. The employers' representatives should also be elected by associations of employers, whose voting power should be approximately proportionate to the number of workers which their Members employ.
(c) The Council should meet annually and its president should be elected at each annual session. The secretary of the Council should be a permanent official responsible to it for the current business throughout the year.
(d) Functions of the Council :
(i) to examine proposals for labour legislation referred to it and also to initiate such proposals,
(ii) to promote a spirit of co-operation and understanding among those concerned with labour policy and to provide an opportunity for an interchange of information regarding experiments in labour matters,
(iii) to advise the Central and Provincial Governments on the framing of rules and regulations.
(iv) to advise regarding the collection of labour statistics and the coordination and development of economic research.
354. If labour legislation is central, the authority finally responsible for such legislation must be the Central Legislature. If labour legislation is to be decentralised, some coordinating body will be necessary. The decisions of the Council could not be given mandatory power, but in certain circumstances it might be made obligatory for Provincial Governments within a specified time to submit proposals for legislation to their respective legislatures for a decision as to their adoption or rejection.'
355. Votes in the Industrial Council should be recorded separately in three groups, one including employers' representative, one workers representatives and one the remaining members.
356. Where there is the danger of establishments being transferred to Indian States in order to escape regulation, an effort should be made to obtain the co-operation of the adjoining State.
357. (a) The possibility of making labour legislation both a federal and provincial subject should be considered.
(b) If federal legislation is not practicable efforts should be directed to securing that, as early as possible, the whole of India participates in making progress in labour matter.
(c) For States in which there is appreciable industrial development, the Industrial Council should offer a suitable channel for co-operation.
Though no provision has yet been made in the constitution for the establishment of the Industrial Council, executive action has been taken by the Central Government to give effect to the recommendation. Three Labour Conferences were held in New Delhi under the auspices of the
F.N. 35—2 M of Lib,/56
Labour Department of the Government of India during the years 1940, 1941 and 1942 respectively. The representatives of the Central Government, Provincial Governments and some of the Indian States' Governments were only invited to attend these Conferences. In 1942 Government decided to invite representatives of employees and workers also to these Conferences. The first Conference in which representatives. of Governments (Central and Provincial) States, employers and employees participated was held in New Delhi on the 7th August, 1942. The Conference being convinced that a collaborative machinery composed of Ac representatives of Governments, employers and workers in India should be established forthwith for the consideration of all the questions relating to conditions of labour resolved that,
"A plenary Conference shall be constituted as follows:—
(1), The Hon'ble the Labour Member of Government of India— Chairman.
(2) 3 representatives of the Government of India including 1 representative to represent Minor Administrations,
(3) 11 representatives of Provinces,
(4) 6 representatives of the Industrially important States,
(5) 2 representatives of the Chamber of Princes to represent other States.
(6) 11 representatives of employees of whom 4 will be nominated by Government in agreement with the All-India Trade Union Congress, 4 will be nominated by Government in agreement with the Indian Federation of Labour and 3 will be nominated by Government as representative of other employees' interests.
(7) 11 representatives of employers of whom 4 will be nominated by Government in agreement with the Employers Federation of India, 4 will be nominated by Government in agreement with the All-India Organisation of Industrial Employers and 3 will be nominated by Government to represent other classes of employers.
"2. The Conference shall meet at least once a year, the first meeting being held in Delhi and subsequent meetings held at such places as may be decided upon from time to time".
"3. The Plenary Conference shall advise the Government of India on any matters referred to it for advice taking into account suggestions made by Provincial Governments, States, and the Chamber of Princes and the representative organisations of employers and workers recognised for the purposes of the Conference".
The Conference further resolved "that a Standing Labour Committee shall be be constituted composed as follows:—
(1) The Hon'ble the Labour Member of the Government of India —Chairman.
(2) 1 representative of the Government of India,
(3) 1 representative of the Governments of Bengal, Bombay and the United Provinces,
(4) (i) 1 representative to represent the Provinces of Madras and the C.P. & Berar,
(ii) 1 representative to represent the Provinces of Assam, Bihar and Orissa,
(iii) 1 representative to represent the Provinces of the Punjab, Sind and N.W.F.,
(5) 3 representatives of Indian States, including one representing the Chamber of Princes,
(6) 5 representatives of Employers,
(7) 5 representatives of Employees.
"2. The Standing Labour Committee shall consider and examine such questions as may be referred to it by the Plenary Conference or by the Central Government taking also into account suggestions made by Provincial Governments, States, the Chamber of Princes, and representative organisations of workers and employers.
"3. The Standing Labour Committee shall meet as often as it may be convened by the Central Government for the consideration of questions that may be before it.
"4. The Committee shall be competent—
(a) to advise Government on any matters referred to it by Government provided that copies of any such advise shaft be forwarded to all members of the Plenary Conference.
(b) to report to the Plenary Conference upon any matters referred to it by that Conference."
The following general principles were accepted by the Conference for election to the Standing Committee:—
1. Representatives of angle provinces will be selected by the Governments of those provinces.
2. Representatives of two or more Governments will be selected by agreement between those Governments—a system of selection by rotation might be adopted.
3. Representatives of States to be selected by the Governments of the States,
4. Representative of the Chamber of Princes to be selected in the usual manner.
5. Representatives of employers—
4 to be nominated by the Hon'ble the Labour Member in agreement with the two All-India Associations of Employers to be nominated by the Hon'ble the Labour Member.
6. Representatives of employees—
4 to be nominated by the Hon'ble the Labour Member in agreement with the two main Associations of Employees
1 to be nominated by the Hon'ble the Labour Member."
Sessions of the Plenary Conference and the Standing Labour Committee are being held regularly since August 1942.
Major Recommendations on which no action has yet been taken
No action has yet been taken on the following major recommendation of the Commission:—
Recommendation No. 87.—In the oilfields statutory regulation of rest days, hours, health and safety should be undertaken. Government should consider whether this can be achieved by the application of appropriate sections of. the Mines Act or by separate legislation.
Recommendation No. 184.—Workers' contribution to provident funds maintained by private employers and certified by Government for the purpose should be safeguarded against attachment.
Recommendation No. 262.—The Trade Unions Act should be re-examined in not more than three years' time; all limitations imposed on the activities of registered unions and their officers and members should be reconsidered so as to ensure that the conditions attached to registration are not such as to prevent any well-conducted bona fide union from applying for registration.
Recommendation No. 294.—A Statutory wage-fixing machinery should be established in the Assam plantations after preliminary investigation. (The Government of India have at present under contemplation a legislative measure for fixing minimum wages for workers employed inter alia in plantations.)
Recommendations Nos. 314 & 315.—The employment either directly or with their parents, of children before the age of 10 years should be prohibited by law in plantations. Representatives of the local Governments concerned and of the planters should meet in conference to consider what contribution each can make towards the education of children on the plantations.
Recommendation No. 317.—Boards of Health and Welfare should be established under statute for convenient planting areas.
APPENDIX VI Extent of Employment in Various Industries.
Remarks to accompany the Employment Chart.
Figures given in the Chart refer to the total employment in British India except where stated otherwise in the following notes. Employment figures for Indian States wherever available are also given below:—
1. Coal.—Figures refer to British India only.
2. Manganese.—Besides those in British India, the Indian States employed 3,554 workers in 1939 and 1,809 workers in 1943.
3. Gold-—Figures refer to Mysore State only and in addition - 7,736 workers in 1939 and 6,358 in 1944 were employed by contractors but paid by the Mining Companies. In British India 143 workers were employed in 1939 and 219 in 1943.
4. (a) Mica Mining.—Figures refer to British India Only. In addition, 27,164 workers in 1939 and 52,170 in 1943 were employed on uparchallas and in Indian States.
(b) Mica Manufacture.—Figures refer to whole of India and are an estimate. The employment in Mica factories during 1939 was about 22,000 and during 1943 it was about 45,000. The balance is made up by employment in the Domestic section.
5. Iron Ore.—Figures refer to British India alone. Besides, the employment in Mayurbhanj, Keonjhar and Mysore States in 1944 was 1,500, 675 and 500 workers respectively.
6. Rock Salt.—The figures are for Khewra only.
7. Mineral Oil.—Figures refer to British India.
8. Tea.—Figures refer to whole of India and include 97,000 workers in 1942 employed by Indian States; separate figures of employment in Indian States for 1939 are not available.
9. Coffee.—Figures refer to whole of India and include 63,050 workers employed by Indian States in 1943 and 58,281 in 1939.
10. Rubber.—Figures refer to whole of India and include 32,125 workers employed by Indian States in 1942. These figures for 1939 were 28,034.
11. Cotton.—Figures refer to whole of India. 12. Jute.—Figures refer to British India only.
13. Silk.—The figures relate to British India only. The employment in Indian States in 1939 was 4,386 and in 1943 it was 7,198 workers.
14. Woollen.—The employment in Indian States was 9,768 workers in 1939 about 3,800 in 1943. In addition the woollen carpet and Shawl weaving establishments and the hosiery factories employed 3,382 and 264 persons respectively. According to an estimate made there were also about a lakh of handlooms engaged in the weaving of wool throughout the country.
15. Dockyards.—Figures refer to British India.
16. Engineering.—Figures refer to British India only.
17. Cement.—Figures relate to British India and comprise cement lime and pottery factories together. Indian States employed 3,667 and about 9,000 workers respectively during 1939 and 1943.
18. Matches.—Besides the British Indian figure the Indian States employed 3,747 and 5,600 workers respectively during 1939 and 1943.
19. Paper.—Figures relate to British India ; and during 1939 and 1943 the Indian States employed 887 and 1,100 workers respectively.
20. Carpet Weaving.—Figures relate to employment in the four selected centres, namely, Mirzapur, Amritsar and Srinagar.
21 . Coir Matting.—Figures relating to Travancore and Cochin States only and are an estimate.
22. Tanneries & Leather goods,—Figures relate only to British India.
23. Potteries.—Figures relate to sampled units only at Calcutta, Bangalore and Gwalior.
24. Printing Presses.—Figures refer only to British India.
25. Glass.—Figures refer to British India only. The total estimated employment for all India is between 30,000 and 35,000. The excess of employment over the figures given in the chart is made up by about 5,000 workers in Indian States and the rest by unregulated factories and cottage shops in British India.
26. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works.—Figures refer to British India.
27. Shellac.—The figure is an estimate for the whole of India, This includes 510 workers in Indian States.
28. Tobacco.—The figure is a combined one for Bidi, Cigar and Cigarette industries. The bidi industry is estimated to employ 500,000 persons throughout India. The Cigar and Cigarette industries in India employed 3,300 and 12,121 workers respectively in 1943.
29. Sugar.—-Figures refer to British India.
30. Cotton Ginning and Balling,—Figures refer to British India.
31. Rice Mills.—Figures refer to British India.
33. Transport Services.—Figures refer to British India. The figures for buses represent an estimate only and are for 1944.
33. Railways.—Figures relate to all railway servants, on all railways throughout the country.
34. Port Trusts.—Figures relate to five selected ports only.
35. Municipalities.—Figures relate to seven selected centres only, namely, Bombay, Lahore, Madras, Calcutta, Nagpur, Cawnpore.
36. Central P. W. D.—An estimate.
37. Rickshaw Pullers.—Figures relate to selected centres only.
Name of Centre. .............................................................................
Budget Reference No. ....................................................................
1. (a) Please state the name of the worker's native place. (b) Has he any contact with his native place ?
2. Does he or any member of his family own any land in his village ? If so, who looks after the cultivation of this family land in the village.
3. Does he go to help in agricultural operations at the sowing and harvesting time ?
4. (a) At what time of the year does he usually go to his native place ?
(b) Does he go to his native place at regular intervals, and if so, at what intervals ? What is the purpose of such visits and what is the usual duration of the stay ?
5. Are his earnings from the produce of land more, equal to or less than his earnings in the factory/mine during his period of absence ?
6. How often did he go to his village during the course of the last twelve months, for what purpose and what was the duration of the stay ? I
(An Extract from the Recommendations on Labour Matters of Mill-owners' Association, Bombay.)
1. The object of the 'Badli Control System' is the decasualisation of badli labour so that badlis will get attached to each mill and obtain more regular employment. A large number of badli is of no advantage to any one except the Jobber. On the other hand, an enormous labour turnover is a great loss to the mill. In addition the large amount of casual labour is a constant source of labour trouble. In order to improve the efficiency in the mills and minimise the discontent it is necessary to introduce some form of badli control. This could be achieved even if absenteeism which of course, leads to the employment of badlis, was not reduced. The more important points of the 'Badli Control System are :—
(1) Special badli cards should be given to all badlis working in a mill on a particular day.
(2) Instructions in Marathi should be printed on the back of the badli card describing the rights and duties of badlis.
(3) On the following day after the cards have been introduced, any badli having a card should be given preferential employment for available vacancies. A badli cardholder should be employed on a similar occupation under any Jobber in the same department in preference to a new badli.
(4) Only after the number of badlis with cards wanting employment has been exhausted, should new badlis be employed. These should be given fresh badli cards.
This system should go on from day to day and month to month. At the beginning of a new month, fresh cards should be given to the same badlis, and their old cards recovered from them.
(5) In order to ensure that the badlis who have got cards attend mill regularly for employment from day to day, Heads of Departments should initial the cards of badlis on each day that they amended the mill but could not get work. The Heads of Departments should initial the cards before the badlis are allowed to leave the mill premises.
(6) In order to ensure that the system is being worked in a satisfactory way it is necessary to employ a time-keeper or a ticket boy to wait. at the mill gate for an hour or so after starting time to record the number of badlis with cards leaving the mill without employment from different departments so that when fresh badli cards are demanded from new badlis on any day the Heads of the Departments will be able to check up whether new men were being engaged in preference to badlis with cards.
(7) Where the mills find that badlis do not turn up regularly from day to day their cards should be cancelled. A previous warning should, however, be given and badlis should also be Informed that efforts are being made to give then continuous work. Where badlis carrying a badlis pass do not get work they have to get their cards initiated by the Head of the Department concerned before leaving the mill.
(8) Efforts should also be made by Managers and Departmental Heads to see that before a man is engaged on a permanent basis he has worked as a badli for several months and has had badli cards regularly during that period.
(9) Managers would find it useful to have statements made from time to time of the number of badlis engaged in each major departments to watch how the system is progressing.
(10) Mills should compile the 'badli return' and send it to the Association every month in order to find out whether the 'Badli Control System' is working satisfactorily or not.
(11) A separate register containing the* names of all badlis should be maintained. On the first day of each month the names of all badli workers who have been given badli cards should be entered up serially in this register for each of the major departments. The day to day attendance of all the badli card holders should be noted. If a badli obtains work then his departmental ticket number for the day should be entered up against his name in the date column. If he came to the mills but did not get work, he should be marked present and if he did not call at the mill at all, he should be marked absent.
By entering up these details of attendance for each badli worker separately in a separate register, the Heads of the Departments would be able to maintain a check on engagements and on the issue of cards to men who attend regularly.
(12) Revision of the Substitute Card.—A revised form of the Substi-tute Card has been recommended for adoption by mills. Four additional headings have been suggested for inclusion in the Substitute Card. They are :—
(a) Date of engagement as badli—Here insert the date on which the badli card holder was first engaged as a badli in your mill. This would help to ascertain the length of service of a badli from his card.
(c) Remarks regarding Attendance and (d) regarding Efficiency.— The information should be filled up from month to month at the time of issuing the Badli Card.
(13) Engagement of Badlis— Preferential treatment should be given to workers who were thrown oat of employment on account of curtailment of night shift work and who hold service certificates for badli work.