Labour Investigation Committee (1946)||
LABOUR INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE
DEPARTMENT OF LABOUR, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA
No. LIC-36, Simla, the 27th May 1944
The Labour Investigation Committee has been appointed by the Government of India by Resolution No. L4012, dated the 12th February 1944, which is as follows:—
"The Tripartite Labour Conference, at its meeting in September 1943;
unanimously passed the following resolution:—
"This Tripatite Labour Conference recommends that, with a view to provide adequate materials on which to plan a policy of social security for labour, the Central Government in cooperation with the Governments of Provinces of British India, Indian States and the Chamber of Princes should immediately set up machinery to investigate questions of wages and earnings, employment and housing and social conditions generally, and that as soon as possible after receipt of the required statistics and other data, the Central Government should appoint a mixed Committee to formulate plans of social security."
In pursuance of this resolution and in order that information may be collected bearing upon various aspects of social security, so as to enable the Planning Committee subsequently to be set up to draw up a programme of social security for labour in India, the Governor-General-in-Council is pleased to appoint a Committee of Enquiry to be known as Labour Investigation Committee. The Committee will be composed of:
(1) Mr. D. V. Rege, I. C. S. Chairman.
(2) Mr. S. R. Deshpande, M. B. E..
(3) Dr. Ahmad Mukhtar, Members.
(4) Mr. B. P. Adarkar,
and its terms of reference will be as follows:—
(a) to collect data relating inter alia to wages and earnings, employment, housing and social conditions of labour and in particular of industrial labour in India, and
(b) to investigate and report inter alia on the following matters:—
(1) the risks which bring about insecurity,
(2) the needs of labour, by various classes, to meet such risks,
(3) the methods most suitable for meeting such risks, and
(4) housing and factory conditions."
With a view to collecting factual and statistical data and obtaining the views of Governments, employers' and workers' associations and other institutions and persons, the accompanying General Questionnaire is issued. In replying to it, it is not necessary to answer all questions. The questionnaire has been divided into sections; you may select such Sections or questions as may be of interest to you and in regard to which
you are in a position to supply useful information. You may also submit special memoranda on any particular topic or topics covered by the terms of reference.
Replies to the Questionnaire, together with Memoranda, if any, may kindly be sent in typescript (five copies) as early as possible and in any case not later than the 31st July 1944 addressed to the Chairman, Labour Investigation Committee, Council Chamber, Simla.
You may also kindly indicate whether you would be prepared to tender oral evidence, if required by the Committee to do so.
In addition to the General Questionnaire, the Committee propose to issue a few special questionnaires in regard to industries which cannot be conveniently covered by this Questionnaire. The Committee also propose to collect information through Sample and Ad Hoc Surveys to be conducted in various industrial centres. In this connection, special Investigators may be approaching your Government/Association/Concern/ you, on behalf of the Committee. You are earnestly requested to render all possible assistance and co-operation to them in obtaining reliable information.
D. V. REGE, To Chairman, Labour Investigation Committee
1. Are you aware of any survey of labour conditions made in your Province or State by any public or private body or individual or of any printed material bearing upon labour conditions? If so, kindly give the name of the publication and the full address of the author and the source from which copies could be obtained.
2. What legislative measures for the regulation of labour conditions
are, in your opinion, of fundamental importance as a condition precedent to the formulation of a Social Security programme"? In what respects, if any does the existing legal administrative structure require to be improved?
3. What are the various Labour Acts in force in your Province or State?
SECTION II—EXISTING LABOUR LEGISLATION
(A)- Factories Act
4. Are the provisions of the Factories Act and Rules made there under being strictly enforced? If not, please state the extent to which evasion or violation is taking place in respect of any provisions and the methods or means of such evasion or violation. What machinery exists for enforcing the Act? Is the Inspectorate adequate?
5. State the nature and extent of evils that exist in establishments which are not subject to the Factories Act. Would you advocate the extension of any part or the whole of the Act to such establishments, or would you prefer the enactment of a separate measure to deal with them? Can any such legislative measure be successfully enforced?
6. Apart from exemptions granted as a war-time measure, have you any observations to make on the exemptions granted by Governments in respect of certain provisions of the Factories Act?
7. Have you any suggestions to make for improving the Factories Act or its administrative machinery? If so, please mention them, giving reasons.
(B) Payment of Wages Act
8. Are the provisions of the Payment of Wages Act and Rules made there under being strictly enforced? If not, please state the extent to which evasion or violation is taking place in respect of any provisions and the methods or means of such evasion or violation. Are there any inherent difficulties in the enforcement of the Act?
9. In particular, how does the Act work in relation to (a) contract labour (b) badli labour?
10. Do you think that the wage limit prescribed by the Act in Section I (6) requires to be altered?
11 Would you advocate the extension of the Payment of Wages Act to any industry not at present covered by it, and, if so, why?
12. If you are not satisfied with the present working of the Act, what improvements in the Act or Rules or in the Administrative machinery would you suggest?
13. Are any deductions from the earnings of the workers made by the
employer which are not capable of being prevented by the existing provisions of the Act or Rules?
(C) Workmen's Compensation Act
14. Are you satisfied with the working of the Workmen's Compensation Act? If not, please state how it can be improved?
15. What difficulties are experienced by different types of workers (contract, badli, etc.) in your Province or State, in securing compensation? Is part payment made before the claim is finally settled? Are they aware of their own rights under the Act? If not, are any steps being taken to educate them in this regard?
16. (i) What procedure is followed by you for—
(a) reporting accidents occurring in your concern?
(b) payment of compensation when it is due?
(2) Are there any complaints on the part of operatives regarding delays on payment of compensation?
17. What agencies are available to render legal or other assistance to workers in securing compensation due to them?
18. To what extent do employers insure against accidents with insurance companies? Are you in favour of compulsory insurance by all employers against accidents with insurance companies?
19. Are you in favour of extending Schedule III of the Act which enumerates the occupational diseases entitling workers to compensation? In this connection, state as to which of the occupational diseases mentioned in Appendix I to this questionnaire are, to your knowledge, prevalent in your Province, State, industry or concern.
20. Have you any suggestions to make regarding (a) scale of compensation, (b) conditions governing grant of compensation, (c) machinery of administration, (d)- extension of the Act to industries not covered by it at present, (e) any other matters.
21. What medical assistance is available to the injured worker in your
establishment? Is it free? What are the qualifications of the medical officer-in-charge?
(D) Maternity Benefit Act
22. Apart from any legislative enactment, is maternity benefit provided under any special agreement between employers and workers, or at the discretion of the management?
23. Where a Maternity Benefit Act is applicable, has it resulted in a diminution of the employment of women workers?
24. How successful has the Act been in its intention? Do women workers experience difficulties in obtaining benefit? If so, what are they?
25. Are female workers discharged or threatened with discharge by employers in order to avoid payment under the Act?
26. Are the cash benefits payable and the period for which they are payable adequate? How is the payment made?
27. Are there any arrangements in your concern for the treatment of" maternity cases including pre-natal and post-natal care? Are these arrangements available to your workers' wives and other female dependants not working in your concern?
28. What improvements, if any, in the Act would you suggest?
SECTION III—WAGES AND EARNINGS
29. What are the basic wage rates for different types of workers, for time and piece work respectively, in you industry or establishment? Can you supply information regarding the changes that have taken place in these rates since 1938? What changes, in particular, have taken place since the commencement of the war?
30. Please describe the principles underlying the fixation of basic wages of the worker in your establishment or industry.
31. In addition to the basic wages, what allowances, bonuses, etc., are paid? Please give full details stating which of these are temporary and which permanent in nature and on what conditions such allowances or bonuses are given. Are any attempts made to evade payment of these allowances and bonuses?
32. Are there any allowances or bonuses which have owing to lapse of time become part and parcel of the basic wages and are not subject to fluctuation from time to time? If so, give full particulars.
33. In addition to wages in cash, are there any payments in kind made to or any concessions or benefits conferred upon the worker by the employer at his discretion or otherwise?
34. How do you calculate overtime pay in the case of time work,, piece work, or combination of time and piece work. Do you maintain any registers for recording overtime pay? Are they available to the workers or their representatives for inspection?
35. (a) Are wages paid directly to the worker or through agents such as jobbers, mistries, mukkaddams, sardars or contractors?
(b) How do wages paid by your contractors compare with those paid by you for similar work in your establishment?
36. Are workers dismissed and re-employed on lower scales of pay because permissible deductions under the Payment of Wages Act are not considered adequate?
37. (a) In the same department and occupation and for the same type of work, do differential rates of wages exist?
(b) Are different wage rates paid to permanent and temporary workers and to men and women doing the same or similar work?
38. What are the periods of wage payment in your Province, State or establishment? Are you in favour of weekly, fortnightly or monthly payment of wages? What is the time elapsing between the day on which wages become due and the day of actual payment?
39. Have any efforts been made to standardise the wage rates? If so, kindly supply full details of the scheme evolved. What, in your, view, are the main difficulties in standardising the wage rates?
40. (a) What attempts at rationalization by way of efficiency schemes have been made in your industry? Please give details.
(b) What are the effects of such schemes on—
(i) total employment in the concern,
(ii) employment in particular occupations, (iii) wage rates, (iv) earnings, (v) production, and (vi) working conditions, especially strain and fatigue.
(c) In what proportion are the gains resulting from these schemes passed on to workers?
41. State the total number of workers employed by you in you establishment on the 1st January, 1939, and 1st January, 1944, or at least on the latter date, classified as under:—
(a) Supervisory staff,
(c) Workers employed and paid directly by establishment (men, women and children),
(d) Workers employed by contractors and paid by establishment (men, women and children),
(e) Workers employed as well as paid by contractors (men, women and children).
42. If you have any statistical information regarding the length of service of operatives in your concern, please give it in the following form: those between 0 and 1 year of service, those between 1 and 5 years of service, those between 5 and 10 years of service, and those over 10 years of service.
43. Are there any Standing Orders, Rules or agreements prevalent in your Province, State or concern, governing the day-to-day relationship between employer and workers? If so, please supply a copy.
44. Are your workers classified as permanent, temporary, badli or casual? Give the percentage in each category and explain the rights and privileges of each category of workers. How are temporary, badli and casual workers put on the permanent list, if at all? Have you any definite rules? If so, please supply copies of the same.
45. Do you recruit you labour direct? If not, what is the agency for recruitment of labour? To what extent is labour recruited through jobbers, contractors and sub-contractors, or any other agency? Explain your recruitment system fully and give your reasons for your preference for it over other alternatives. If the present system of recruitment is defective, would you- advocate the establishment of employment exchanges?
46. Do you maintain service or registration cards for all or some of your workers? If so, please send a specimen copy.
F.N. 31—2 M of Lab./56.
47. State the labour turnover in your establishment for the years 1938 and 1943, or any recent years in the tabulated form below:—
|Average daily number of workers employed during the month or year||Total number of workers who left during the month or year|
48. Point out the reasons for the labour turnover and suggest measures for reducing it. Is the turnover greater during some months than in others? If so, why?
49. Do you maintain figures of absenteeism? If so, on what basis is absenteeism calculated? Please supply figures of absenteeism in your establishment during the years 1938 and I1943. Is absenteeism greater in night shifts than in day shifts? Is it greater in some months than in others? Is it greater immediately after the pay day or on festival days? Discuss the various causes of absenteeism and the remedies, necessary for its reduction.
50. Have you any provision for the training of apprentices? How many of them have had preliminary education? Please supply a copy of the rules, if any, and state the following particulars:—
(a) Total number of apprentices engaged during the period 1938—43
(b) Total number of those who qualified and are now working in your establishment.
(c) Total number of those who left after qualifying themselves.
(d) Total number of those who could not or did not qualify.
51. Do you have any system of incremental or graded promotion in your establishment? If so, please describe it. Do you think that such a system is in the interests of industry?
52. Do you give any holidays with pay to workers, skilled and unskilled? If so, please supply details.
53. Have you any system of leave with or without pay for your workers? What is the proportion of workers who are entitled to such leave? If you have any leave rules, please supply a copy.
54. Are workers suspended or sent on compulsory or forced leave as a disciplinary measure? If so please give the number of such cases in 1943
55. (a) Do you impose fines as a disciplinary measure? How is the fines fund administered and utilized? Please state the specific items and the account of money spent on each as also the outstanding balance in the fund on 1-1-1944.
(b) Are you satisfied with the present administration and utilization of the fund. If not, what improvements would you suggest?
56. Have you a Labour Officer to enquire into the grievances of workers? If not have you any machinery for enquiring into this matter and into complaints against the supervisory staff?
57. Is any class of workers eligible to special benefits in regard to recruitment, starting pay, promotion, training or other matters? If so, please give details and also the reasons therefor.
SECTION V—WORKING CONDITIONS
Note.—Wherever possible, please supply information relating to the pre-war and present day conditions.
58. What are you hours of work? State under the following heads:—
(a) normal, i.e., as determined by custom, agreement, or law; (b) actual, i.e., including overtime; (c) spreadover, i. e., the relation between hours worked and hours during which worker is on call; and (d) days worked per week.
59. What have been the effects of restriction of working hours as enforced by the Factories Act on (a) the efficiency of the workers, and (b) on production. Will a further reduction of working hours result in increasing, maintaining or decreasing the present production?
60. How many and what kinds of shifts (single, double, multiple, or overlapping) do you work? Specify the hours of work, the rest intervals and the weekly days of rest for each shift of workers. If you work overlapping shifts, what are you special reasons for doing so?
61. Are you in favour of working night shifts in normal times? What are the effects of night shift working on—
(a) the health of the workers,
62. If your establishment is a continuous-process factory, what arrangements are made for rest days and at what intervals are these rest days given?
63. Have you taken any special measures for prevention of accidents, or for protecting the worker from dust, heat, glare, etc., apart from those prescribed by the Factories Act?
64. Is an adequate number of (a) latrines and (b) urinals provided for males and females separately? Describe their structure and their proportion to the total number of workers. Are they provided with doors?
65. Is the arrangement for drinking water adequate? Is cool water supplied during summer? Are any other drinks supplied free of charge?
66. Are any shelters provided for workers for taking meals or for use during intervals of rest? If so, are separate shelters provided for males and females?
67. Is there any housing scheme for workers provided in your area or industrial centre by the State, public bodies or by the employer? What proportion of the workers is covered by it? Please give full details of the scheme, and supply any printed material, photographs, or plans relating thereto, if possible.
68. State the following particulars:—
(a) the nature of accommodation, whether one-room, two-room, etc., tenements, whether with or without verandah, whether in lines, back-to-back or independent;
(b) Measurement of the accommodation, and the total number of persons (adult males, adult females and children under 10) staying there;
(c) the rent charged for each type of accommodation;
(d) the structure of the tenement, the material used, and the type of floors (whether cemented, brickpaved or kacha);
(e) structure, dimensions and privacy in the case of bath rooms, if any? Are separate bath rooms provided for females?
(f) provision for ventilation, lighting, water-supply, etc.;
(g) number of lavatories and urinals provided and their proportion to the number of people living in the quarters, their distance from the quarters, whether separate for men and women, etc.
69. How far are the workmen's quarters situated from their place of work? Is any conveyance provided for the workers to and fro? What are the charges, if any, for this?
70. Are there any market, post-office and other similar convenience available near the quarters?
71. How is allotment made? How do you deal with the problems of (a) sub-letting, (b) occupation of quarters by workers in the employ of others, (c) eviction?
72. Are there any facilities for workers to build their own houses? Have you any land for workers to build houses at their own cost? Have you ever encouraged them to build houses on a long lease? Have the workers started any co-operative society of their own and, if so with what results?
73. How far have the employers availed themselves of the Land Acquisition Act to acquire land compulsorily to house their labour?
74. To what extent do workers live in bastis, ahatas, chawls, etc. owned by private landlords, sardars or contractors? Please describe the conditions in some of them.
75. To what extent do workers live in their own houses whether built or purchased by them? How do these houses compare with those provided by other agencies?
76. What is your housing policy in respect of labour? Have you any programme for building quarters for them in the near future? If so, please describe your plans. In allotting accommodation, are the workers' caste, creed, race or affiliation to a trade union.-etc., taken into consideration? Do the workers enjoy ordinary rights of tenancy in these houses?
77. What, in your opinion, should be the housing policy of the country in respect of labour? Who should be held responsible for provision of housing—Government, employers, municipalities or workers themselves organized on co-operative lines or any combination of them?
78. Have you any special views on the question of financing housing schemes for industrial workers?
79. What is the minimum amount of housing accommodation which a worker, in your opinion, should have?
80. What proportion of the labour force in your area or concern is permanently settled and what proportion is migratory.
81. Mention the areas from which the workers are chiefly drawn? Do the workers who come from outside return to their villages occasionally or only during holidays?
82. Is there any seasonal migration of the workers for agricultural operations, etc.?
83. Do you think that a stabilised labour force is desirable in the interests of industry. If so, what steps should be taken to achieve this object?
84. Is there much migration of workers between factories in the same or different areas?
85. Are the workers in your Province, State, area or establishment indebted? If so, can you give some idea of the extent of indebtedness?
86. What are the predominant causes of indebtedness?
87. Who are the moneylenders and what rates of interest do they charge? What are their methods of lending and recovering the principal?
88. Have you got any law relating to indebtedness of industrial workers? If so, please state how far it has helped them.
89. What remedies have been devised by either Governments or employers or workers themselves for relief, prevention and reduction of indebtedness? How far have they been successful? What further remedies have you to suggest, if any?
SECTION IX—AGE AND MORTALITY STATISTICS
90. Do you maintain any record of age statistics. If so, please supply information in the following form:
Those who have completed (a) but not completed (b)
No. of Male Workers
No. of Female workers
91. What is the most common age at which workers enter employment in your establishment or area? At what age do they mostly retire from employment? Do many workers have to work in spite of old age or invalidity?
92. Have you collected any figures showing the mortality and expectation of life of workers in your industry, factory or area? If so, please supply the same.
93. What is the extent of reliability of the age records maintained by you? When doctors certify the age of children employed in your area, is there a tendency to overestimate the age?
SECTION X—WELFARE ACTIVITIES
94. Please describe the nature and extent of welfare work amongst workers done in your Province, State, area or establishment by Government, employers or other agencies. The information may kindly be supplied under the following heads:—
(a) Canteens—their working, kind of food provided, percentage of workers who benefit, their degree of popularity, etc.
(b) Creches—Number of children provided for, the supervisory staff employed and their qualifications. What attempts have been made to popularise the creche among women workers?
(c) Entertainment—cinema shows, radio sets, sports, etc.
(d) Medical attendance in factories and houses, provision of maternity and child welfare, etc.
(e) Washing and bathing facilities.
(f) Any other facilities.
95. What are the effects, of such welfare work on the worker' his attendance at factory, his standard of life and industrial efficiency, his habits and absenteeism?
96. What are the facilities available for (a) education of the workers' children, (b) education of adult workers and (c) industrial and vocational training? What are the practical results achieved therefrom?
97. Have you any statistical information about literacy among industrial workers? If so, please supply it.
SECTION XI—SOCIAL SECURITY MEASURES
98. What, in your view, are the various risks of insecurity arising in the case of industrial labour, against which provision should be made in a social security programme?
99. What particular classes of labour are exposed to such risks and to what extent?
100 Which of the various security measures, such as health insurance, unemployment insurance, invalidity, pensions, old age pensions, widows' and orphans' pensions, industrial life insurance, maternity insurance, etc., do you consider of paramount importance in the case of Indian workers? Which of them need prior attention? Which of them do you regard within the range of practicability?
101. What special difficulties do you foresee in the way of the introduction of social security measures for workers in India? How would you overcome those difficulties?
102. Do you consider that a programme of social security for industrial workers in India is unattainable on grounds of finance?
103. To what extent does insecurity of employment prevail? What are its causes? What measures would you suggest for remedying it?
104. Give, if possible, an estimate of labour and staff reductions likely to take place in your establishment immediately following the end of the present war.
105. To what extent can the displaced labour be absorbed in alternative occupations?
106. What, in your view, should be the features of a scheme of Unemployment Insurance designed for workers who are already employed and who may later be thrown out of employment? What ancillary measures, if any, would you suggest?
107. Are you in favour of making (a) Compensation for accident or occupational disease, (b) maternity benefit as part of Social Insurance programme instead of continuing them as a liability on the employer? Please give reasons for your views.
108. Is there a Provident Fund, Gratuity Fund or Pensions Fund for skilled and/or unskilled workers in your establishment? If so, kindly supply a copy of the Rules.
109. In particular, state whether the Fund is registered, when it was started, whether it is open to all workers or only to some, what are the respective contributions of employer and workers, the number of workers covered, the amount of the fund, investments made, whether the accumulation to the credit of worker is attachable or alienable under any circumstances, etc.
110. Consider the feasibility of Old Age Pensions, Industrial Life Insurance, Compulsory Provident Funds, or a combination of any of these to deal with the problem of provision for the worker's future.
111. Do you think that separate social security programmes are necessary for industrial, semi-industrial and agricultural labour? If so, please make detailed suggestions.
1. Give the number of cases of the diseases in the attached list (shown separately under each disease) which occurred in 1940, 1941 and 1943 in your concern.
2- Where possible, give the total number of workers exposed to the risk of contracting each particular disease.
Description of Disease
Description of Process
Handling of wool, hair, bristles, hides and skins.
|2. Lead poisoning or its sequelae||Any process involving the use of lead
or its preparations or compounds.
Handling of lead or its preparation or compounds.
|3. Mercury poisoning or its sequelae||Any process involving the use of mercury or its preparations or compounds.|
|4. Phosphorus poisoning or its sequelae.;||Any process involving the use- of phosphorus or its preparations or compounds.|
|5. Arsenic poisoning or its sequelae||Any process involving the use of arsenic
or its preparations or compounds.
Handling of arsenic or its preparations or compounds.
|6. Poisoning by nitro-and amidoderivatives of benezene and its homologues (trinitrotoluene, anilin, and others), or the sequelae.||Handling any nitro-or amidoderivative of benezene or any of its homologues or any process in the manufacture or involving the use thereof.|
|7. Poisoning by benezene and its homologues, or the sequelae.||Handling benzene or any of its homologues, or any process in the manufacture or involving the use thereof.|
|8. Poisoning by dinitrophenol or its
|Handling dinitorphenol, or any process in the manufacture or involving the use thereof.|
|9. Poisoning by carbon bisulphide or its sequelae.||Any process involving the use of carbon bisulphide or its preparations or compounds.|
|10. Poisoning by nitrous fumes or its sequelae.||Any process in which nitrous fumes are evolved.|
|11. Chrome ulceration or its sequelae .||Any process involving the use of chromic acid, bichromate of ammonium) potassium, or sodium, or their preparations.|
|12. Compressed air illness or its sequelae||Any process carried on in compressed air.|
|13. Ulceration of the corneal surface of the eye, due to tar, pitch, bitumen, mineral, oil, or paraffin or any compound, product, or residue of any of these substances.||Handling or use of tar, pitch, bitumen, mineral oil, or paraffin, or any compound, product, or residue, of any of these, substances.|
|14. Epitheliomatous cancer or ulceration of the skin due to tar, pitch, bitumen, mineral oil, or paraffin, or any compound, products, or residue of any of these substances.||Handling or use of tar, pitch bitumen,mineral, oil, or paraffin or any compound, product, or residue of these substances.|
Description of Disease
Description of Process
|15||Dermatits products by dust or liquids.|
|16.||Ulceration of the skin product by dust or liquids.|
|17.||The disease known as miner's nystagnus, whether occurring in miners or others, and whether the the symptom of oscillation of the eye balls be present or not.||Mining.|
|18.||Subcutaneous cellulitis of the hand (beat hand).||Mining.|
|19.||Subcutaneous cellulitis or acute bursitis arising at or about the knee (beat knee).|
|20.||Subcutaneous cellulitis or acute bursitis over the elbow (beat elbow).||Mining.|
|21.||Inflammation of the synovial linin of the wrist joint and tendon sheaths.||Mining.|
|22.||Cataract in glassworkers||Process in the manufacture of glass involving exposure to the glare of molten glass.|
|.23.||Telegraphic's cramp||Use of telegraphic instruments.|
|25||Cataract caused by exposure to rays from molten or red-hot
|Any process normally involving exposure to rays from molten or red-hot metal including reheating and rolling iron in the manufacture of iron or steel.|
|26.||Twister's cramp caused by twisting of cotton or woollen (including worsted) yarns.|
|27||Manganese poisoning||Handling of manganese or substance containing manganese.|
|28.||A localiped new growth of the skin, papillomatous or keratotic, due to mineral oil.||Cotton spinning by means of self-acting mules.|