Labour Investigation Committee (1946)||
The Royal Commission on Labour made 357 recommendations, a summary of which is given in Appendix I to their Report. Some of the recommendations were urgent and capable of early adoption, while others, particularly those which involved legislation, required detailed examination before being implemented. In regard to certain matters, e. g., health and housing, the Commission deliberately took a long view and laid down a policy and a programme ensuring a gradual and progressive advance. While undertaking a preliminary examination of the Report, the Government of India found it convenient to group the recommendations into the following six classes according to the agency responsible for giving effect to them :—
I. Recommendations involving central legislation.
II. Recommendation requiring administrative action by the Government of India.
III. Recommendations involving Provincial legislation.
IV. Recommendations requiring administrative action by Provincial Governments and Administrations.
V. Recommendations requiring action of public bodies, e.g., municipalities, universities, etc.,
VI. Recommendations requiring action by employers and their organisation or by workers' unions.
Statements setting out the recommendations coming under each category were prepared by the Government of India and circulated to various departments and Provincial Governments. The Government of India were to take the initiative as regards the recommendations included in the first two categories. Provincial Governments were to examine recommendations in the III and IV categories and were also required to being to the notice of public bodies and organisations of employers and workers the recommendations included in the V and VI categories and to impress on all concerned the desirability of an early and sympathetic consideration.
A report showing the action taken by the central and provincial Governments in respect of recommendations included in Categories I—IV was published by the Government of India, annually for four years from 1932 to 1935. In 1936 the report showed the action taken by the Central and Provincial Governments in the administrative sphere only. Regarding the recommendations requiring legislative action, the Central Government published in 1937 a Bulletin1 entitled Indian Labour Legislation 1932—37 with special reference to the Recommendations of the Royal Commission on Labour in India and it contains a full account of the action taken by the Central and Provincial Governments up to April, 1937. In 1937 and 1938 the Central Government published reports showing further action taken by them or by Provincial Governments on the recommendations. During war time, however, the Government of India decided to discontinue the preparation and issue of these publications.
F.N. Bulletin No. 61 of Indian Industries and Labour.
As in any future planning of labour legislation it will be of great importance to review the action remaining to be taken on he major recommendations of the Royal Commission on Labour, the Committee have examined the position afresh in the following pages. As far as the action taken by the Provincial Governments is concerned, the information given
in these pages is based on the replies given by them during the years 1943 and 1944 to a communication issued by the Department of Labour on 30th September, 1943.
7. In applying compulsory education,
(a) municipalities should have regard to the special claims of wards inhabited by mill workers;
(b) it is desirable that the upper age-limit should be brought up to at least 1 2 years; and
(c) employers might assist by lending buildings, by equipping schools and in other ways.
In Bihar free and compulsory education has been introduced in all municipalities at district headquarters with the aid. of grants made by the Provincial Government; but no special consideration is shown towards the mill workers. As regards raising the upper age limit, the Bihar Government docs not consider it feasible to take any action; at present because the proposal is primarily made in the interests of the children of factory employees' and there is no compulsion in any factory area in the- province. It further considers that the proposal would necessarily involve additional expense which cannot be met at present; and that fresh legislation will be necessary for which the present times is not opportune.
1. Government. should examine the possibilities of making preparations to deal with unemployment when it arises, and of taking action where it is now required on the lines of the system devised to deal with famine in rural areas.
With a view to dealing adequately with the problem of resettlement and re-employment in civil life of demobilised members of the Armed Services and discharged war workers, the Government of India have Set up an organisation under the Labour Department. A Director-General of Resettlement and Employment has been appointed. He is assisted by six Directors who have either been appointed, or will be shortly appointed, at the headquarters. ! In order to facilitate the registration of the persons concerned and their placement in civil employment the country has been divided into 9 regions. Each region is placed under the charge of a regional Director who will have an advisory committee consisting of representatives of Government department employers' and workers' organisations. At present there are 17 Exchanges functioning and it is expected that by February 1946 their number will be increased to 71.
Steps are also being taken to have legislation for the setting up of the employment machinery. Although the primary function of the Resettlement Organisation is to deal with resettlement and employment of demobilised members of the Defence Services, it is hoped that the organisation will eventually develop into a permanent Employment Service closely integrated with the economic policies for achieving full employment and higher living standards for the people.
The Bihar Government appointed a Committee to examine and report on the nature and extent of unemployment among the educated classes to investigate the possibilities of diverting more educated young men to-industry and to make recommendation for reducing the volume of middle class unemployment. The recommendations of the Committee are being implemented in Bihar as far as practicable. In U. P. no unemployment among the working industrial class exists at present. The Reconstruction Committees in the province are however, taking up the question of unemployment that may arise after the war.
Working Conditions in Factories
26. Every factory should be compelled to maintain separate and sufficient latrine accommodation for males and females and adequate staff to keep them clean.
In U. P. it is proposed to incorporate this recommendation in the factory rules which are under revision by the Provincial Government.
41. An Officer with medical qualifications should be appointed as an Inspector of Factories in every province, part or full time according to the requirements of the province. Certifying Surgeons should be empowered as inspectors.
In the Punjab the under-mentioned medical officers are working as additional inspectors of Factories:—
1. Director of Public Health, Punjab.
2. Assistant Directors of Public Health, Punjab.
3. Medical Officer of Health of Factories and Statistical Officer.
4. Municipal Medical Officer of Health.
5. Assistant Health Officers of the Labour Corporation.
In the C. P. & Berar as health and sanitation in factories is looked after by Civil Surgeons who have been appointed additional Inspectors under the Factories Act, the Provincial Government considers that in view of the shortage of medical men at present, the appointment of an Inspector with medical qualifications is not an urgent necessity. It proposes to take up this question after the war.
43. (a) Women Factory Inspectors are desirable in every province.
(b) Women inspectors should be of Indian domicile and not less than, 25 years of age, and their pay should be adequate to attract the right type.
(c) If this be not immediately practicable, immediate appointment is recommended in Bengal and Madras and for a limited period, of part-time women officials in provinces where there are fewer women and children in regulated industries.
A woman Assistant Inspector of Factories has been appointed in Madras. In Bengal, it is not considered necessary at present to appoint a woman Factory Inspector, as the employment of women in factories is gradually decreasing. The C. P. Government has, at present. under consideration the question of appointing a woman Factory Inspector.
44. Boiler inspection should be separated from factory inspection.
This recommendation has been accepted by the Government of U. P. and the necessary action has been taken with effect from 1st April 1944.
110. The Jharia and Asansol boards of Health should be called Boards of Health and Welfare and each should be enlarged so as to give increased representation to employers and to include representatives of the workers chosen where possible in consultation with their organisations, and at least one woman member.
In Bengal consideration of the Bill covering this recommendation has been held in abeyance. In Bihar the labour is, at present, represented in Jharia Mines Board of Health by one official, namely, the Commissioner of Labour, Bihar, and one non-official.
119. In mechanical workshops the system of recruitment through labour bureaux is capable of development and together with the system of selection boards or committees would go far to remove grounds of com-plaint of favouritism and bribery in regard to recruitment and promotion.
This system is in force on the N. W. Railway. Other railways which did not have the system did not wish to introduce it as they found the current system satisfactory. The Railway Board does not also wish to enforce any particular system unless there was a clear necessity to do so. The development of Labour exchanges, and Employment Bureaux on other railways will probably receive closer attention after the return to normal conditions when the Railway Department will be in a better position to re-examine the question in the light of past experience and the soundness of the organisation proposed.
129. On completion of one year's continuous services all employees, should be eligible to join a provident fund, membership being optional for those drawing under Rs. 20, compulsory for those drawing Rs. 20 or over per mensem.
During recent years the Railway Board has extended the fund benefits, to a considerable number of staff. With effect from 1-7-44 staff with 3 years' service and over, irrespective of pay, are given the option of subs-scribing to the State Railway Provident Fund, while permanent non-pensionable inferior Railway servants whose monthly emoluments are more than Rs. 30 and other Railway servants whose monthly emoluments are less than Rs. 20 but not less than Rs. 15 irrespective of the period of their service are eligible to subscribe to the fund. Further, permanent non-pensionable inferior servants whose monthly emoluments are Rs. 30 or less but have completed 3 years' continuous service can contribute to the Fund and similarly non-pensionable permanent servants other than inferior whose monthly emoluments are less than Rs. 15 but who have completed 3 years' continuous service can contribute to the Fund.
153. In regard to statistics,
(a) nomenclature should be standardised;
(b) figures should be available (i) of salaries and wages separate from provident fund contributions and gratuities; (ii) of contractors' labour in different branches;
(c) statistics of labour turnover, and absenteeism (showing whether due to sickness or otherwise) should be maintained and analysed.
F.N. 34—2 Lab./56
The position at present is as below:—
(a) The number and cost of railway staff are now maintained and shown in the Annual Report published by the Railway Board under the following categories for various branches of railway services, viz ;—
(i) Gazetted Officers;
(ii) Subordinates drawing pay of Rs. 250 per mensem and over or on scales of pay rising to Rs. 250 per mensem and over. it they are on the old scales of pay and on scales of pay rising to Rs. 200 p. m. and over if they are on the new scales of pay.
(iii) Subordinates on old scales of pay rising to Rs. 249 per mensem but not to Rs. 250 p. m. or over and subordinates on new scales of pay rising to Rs. 199 p. m. but not to Rs. 200 p.m. or over.
(iv) Daily rated labour of all Departments and inferior staff of the Mechanical Department, and
(v) Inferior staff of all Departments other than the Mechanical Department.
(b) The costs of the various grades of staff are shown under separate heads, i.e., salaries, provident fund and gratuity. It has not been found practicable to maintain separate statistics of contractors' labour.
(c) In view of the additional cost involved and the conditions brought about by the War it has not been found practicable to give effect to the entire recommendation.
TRANSPORT SERVICES AND PUBLIC WORKS
161. Consideration should be given to the provision in ports of welfare institutions for Indian seamen.
No action was taken on this recommendation prior to 144. Since, then the following machinery has been established by Government for seamen's welfare:—
(a) Central Seamen's Welfare Board with its headquarters at Delhi The Board is empowered to advise Government on all questions concerning seamen's welfare. (b) Port Welfare Committees whose main function is to co-ordinate all welfare activities for seamen at the individual ports.
(c) Directorate of Seamen's Welfare which supervises on behalf of Government all semen's welfare activities throughout India and which is charged with the planning of seamen's welfare on a long term basis.
(d) Seamen's Welfare Officers who take an active interest in the health, recreation, club facilities, sleeping accommodation and provision of amenities both ashore and afloat.
For Indian seaman, Seamen's Homes or Clubs providing residential accommodation and other facilities have been opened at Calcutta, Bombay, Karachi and Madras, At Vizagapatam, there is a Merchant Navy Club which provides meals light refreshments and games, but has no residential accommodation. Hospital facilities have also been provided at Calcutta and Bombay.
163. The practice of nominating a representative of labour on Port Trusts should be extended to all the major ports.
Provision exists in the Bombay, Karachi and Madras Port Trust Acts for the appointment of a representative of labour on the respective Port Trust Boards. As regards Calcutta Port, it has been decided to include such a provision in the Calcutta Port Act when it is next amended but the present is not regarded as an opportune time for undertaking an amendment of that Act. With regard to Chittagong Port, it has been decided that it is not necessary to have a labour representative on the Port Commission. At Vizagapatam and Cochin no Port Trust Boards have been constituted.
164. With a view to decasualisation and to secure more equitable distribution of employment, a system of registration of dock labour should be introduced in each of the main ports, supervised and controlled by the port authority assisted by representatives of shipowners, a stevedores and labourers.
While it is considered that the present is not an opportune time for introducing a decasualisation scheme, Government are not opposed to the recommendation and have even encouraged such steps as can be taken towards decasualisation . Thus, at Madras, under the new arrangements made by the Port Trust Board- with their labour contractors a minimum monthly income of Rs. 20 has been guaranteed for 400 shore labourers. The introduction of rationing and the organised distribution of foodstuffs at concessional or controlled rates have also facilitated registration of dock labour. At Bombay the Toliwalla labourers have, as a result of the grant of grain concessions, been induced to register themselves. At Karachi the award of the arbitrator in respect of the opening of registration offices for stevedore labour has been accepted.
166. (a) The normal daily hours prescribed by law should be nine; with overtime permissible up to three hours;
(b) Payment for each hour of overtime should be required at not Jess than 33 1/3 percent. over the ordinary rates;
(c) The minimum age of employment should be raised to 14 years;
(d) Enforcement should been entrusted to the factory inspection department.
The consideration of part (b) of the recommendation has been postponed pending a decision on the Commission's recommendation regarding decasualisation and registration of dock labour.
Part (c) of the recommendation has been implemented by the Employment of Children Act 1938 which came into force on the 1st December 1938 and which prohibits the employment of children under 15 inter alia in any occupation involving the handling of goods within the limits of any port subject to any provisions of the Indian Ports Act, 1908. The-enforcement of the Act has been entrusted to Inspectors specially appointed for the purpose.
173. Before minimum wage-fixing machinery can be set up:—
(a) the industries in which there is a strong presumption that the conditions warrant detailed investigation should be selected,
(b) a survey of conditions in each such industry should be undertaken as the basis on which it should be decided whether the fixing of a minimum wage is desirable and practicable,
(c) the trade should be demarcated and the composition and number of the Wage Boards should be decided, and
(d) as much as possible of the information likely to be needed by the Wage Boards, if appointed, should be collected,
174. When a decision has been reached as to whether the conditions in any case justify the setting up of machinery, particular attention must be given to the cost of enforcement and the policy of gradualness should not be lost sight of.
175. The industries referred to in Chapter VII should be examined in the first instance with a view to the need and possibility of instituting minimum wage-fixing machinery.
176. If the results of investigation show the need for minimum wage-fixing machinery in industries of this kind the necessary legislation for setting up such machinery should be undertaken.
The Bihar Labour Enquiry Committee in their more important recommendations Nos. 75 and 76 laid down the scale of minimum wages (l) for Jamshedpur, (2) for Collieries, (3) for Lime-Stone and Iron ore quarries, (4) for Metallurgical engineering etc. and (5) for Sugar Factories in Bihar. The Committee also recommended that minimum wages for workers in Mica mine should be fixed after an enquiry and minimum wage legislation should be extended to other industries if it had been found to work satisfactorily. The matter is still under consideration of the Bihar Government which has decided that the detailed investigation should be undertaken by the Commissioner of Labour, Bihar. The question is under consideration of the Government of C. P. and Berar in consultation with their Labour Commissioner. No action has been taken in other provinces but some of the Provincial Governments presume that the action will be taken in this matter on an all-India basis as a result of the report to be submitted by the Labour Investigation Committee and the recommendations to be made by the Social Security Committee proposed to be appointed by the Government of India.
This question has also been engaging the active attention of the Government of India for the last few years. It was discussed at the third meeting of the Standing Labour Committee in May 1943, at the Labour Conference in September 1943, at the fourth meeting of the Standing Labour Committee in January 1944 and Sixth Labour Conference in October 1944. It is Felt that the need of some legislation in India on this subject at the present juncture is heightened on account of the necessity for affording protection Co the large numbers of demobilised personnel and discharged war workers seeking employment in industries against a progressive lowering of wages which will be the inevitable tendency when, as seems likely, the supply of labour will be considerably in excess of demand- The Government of India have prepared a draft bill which is due to be discussed at the Seventh Labour Conference proposed to be held at New Delhi on the 27th and 28th November 1945.
HEALTH AND WELFARE OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORKERS
193. Municipal councils and local bodies should devote more attention to vital statistics and at least in the larger towns and more important industrial areas the appointment of medical registrars should be compulsory.
In U. P. the Municipal Boards in important towns have been advised to appoint medical registrars for registration of vital statistics but the Provincial Government does not propose for the duration of the war to use compulsion. In Orissa a Public Health Code contemplating to have unified and better method of recording vital statistics is under compilation. In Assam also a proposal to evolve a better method of collection of vital statistics is under consideration in connection with the re-organisation of the Public Health Department.
194. India should have an Institute of Nutrition, as recommended by the Agricultural Commission with a Director and sufficient number of qualified assistants. Publicity work should be part of its functions, propaganda material being prepared under supervision of the Director in consultation with provincial Public Health Departments.
A well equipped Central Institute of Nutrition has been established at Conoor under the auspices of the Indian Research Fund Association. The Institute works under the direction of Dr. Aykroyd and his staff of Special Nutrition Officers. Intensive training classes have been held at the Institute annually and since 1937 some 123 pupils have passed and are now employed as part-time Nutrition Officers in Bengal, Bihar and the Punjab and in the States of Baroda and Hyderabad (Decan). Twenty-nine Officers were also trained in a short special course held in 1945. Useful work has been done by the trained Staff in connection with the diet surveys. Publicity work is part of the functions of the Institute and propaganda material is prepared under the supervision of the Director in consultation with provincial Public Health Departments.
196. Adulteration of Foods Acts should be in force in all provinces and local Governments should endeavour to make their provisions more widely applicable. Severer penalties should be provided and a clause regulating importation and sale of condensed skimmed milk should, if possible, be incorporated.
The Bombay Prevention of Adulteration Act has been in force in Bombay, Ahmedabad, Surat, Borach, Dhulia, Amalner, Sholapur, Ahmed-nagar, Kurla, Hubli, Kapadwanj, Thana and Poona City. The provisions of the Act have been extended to Godhra, Nasik, Belgaum, Pandharpur, Nadiad, Ankleshwar, Umreth, Ghatkopar and Dharwar and are being extended to Ville, Parle, Andheri Trimbak Barsi and other towns. As regards skimmed milk the Director of Industries has been asked to submit proposals for manufacture of dry milk products on a commercial scale. The Director's report is awaited. The Madras Prevention of Adulteration Act, 1918, is now in force in all mofussil areas in the province and also in one hundred Panchayat areas. The Government Analyst's staff in the King Institute, Guindy has been strengthened and extensions of the Act to Panchayat areas are sanctioned whenever necessary on the recommendations of the Public Health authorities. The question of enacting a comprehensive legislation for the prevention of adulteration of all articles including food-staffs is under the consideration of the Government.
Similarly an omnibus Bill on the subject has been drafted by the Sind Government. The Coorg Pure Food Act, 1940 was brought into force in the various local areas in Coorg with effect from 1st November, 1941.
197. In Industrial provinces Public Health Departments should be strengthened to deal with industrial hygiene arid industrial disease; at least one of the Assistant Directors of Public Health should have special knowledge of these subjects.
In Sind the knowledge of most of the industrial disease forms apart of training of the officers of the Public Health Department of the rank of Assistant Director of Public Health. The Assistant Director of Public Health, Sind, being an ex-Officio Inspector of Factories, brings to the notice of the factory owners, during his inspections, any defects which are likely to affect adversely the health of the workers.
199 Industrial health research should be entrusted to the Indian Research Fund Association.
In December 1931, the Scientific Advisory Board considered the Royal Commission's recommendations and noted as follows:—
"The Board, in accordance with the request of the Department of Education, Health and Lands having considered recommendation 199 of the Royal Commission on Labour proposing that industrial health research be entrusted to the Indian Re-search Fund Association was of opinion that there should be a bureau under the Central Government to deal with industrial health. The Indian Research Fund Association would gladly cooperate with such a bureau in carrying out any research or, researches which might be necessary provided that additional funds were placed at its disposal to do so."
This was endorsed by the Governing Body of the Indian Research Fund Association in March 1932 but it has not so far been possible to implement the recommendation of the Royal Commission. An Industrial Health Calcutta the Subject of physiological Hygiene included in 1939 Health Advisory Committee has been set up in 1945 which has already held its first meeting. This step may be expected to lead to research into special problems affecting industrial health. The Indian Research Fund Association has, however, been able to carry out independently enquiries. some of which are detailed below:—
(a) Cholera enquiry by Dr. Tomb in the Asansol Mines between the years 1925-26 and 1930-31.
(b) Anaemia in women employed in Assam Tea Gardens by Dr. Margaret Balfour between the years 1926-27 and 1930-51.
(c) Anaemia in women employed in Assam Tea Gardens by Dr. I. E. Napier between the years 1935-36 and 1941-42.
(d) The general problem of tuberculosis which has received considerable attention for some years from the Indian Research Fund Association was specifically investigated by Dr. Ukil in an enquiry which began in 1927-28 and continued to 1042-43. This last enquiry was of a general nature bat it has included a certain amount of work in connection with the health of industrial workers. The complete report has not yet been received.
It may be added that at the All-India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Calcutta, the subject of physiological hygiene was included in 1939 in the curriculum of students studying for the Diploma of Public Health. The Section of the Institute which deals with this subject is now called the Section of Biochemistry, Nutrition and Physiological Hygiene and in order that it may have facilities of investigating problems of industrial health among Indian workers, the Government of India permitted Dr. M. N. Rao, a Demonstrator in the Section, to accept a Study Fellowship from the Rockfeller Foundation. Dr. Rao has completed his course in the United States and has returned to the Institute where he has been appointed as an Assistant Professor of Industrial and Physiological Hygiene-Work on the problems in which Dr. Rao has received special training has already been started and arrangements are being considered for the training of persons for work in the industrial health field.
200. (a) Women should be appointed to public health staffs particularly in the more industrialised provinces.
(b) Initiative in welfare work among women and children should be taken by local Governments.
(c) Every provincial Public Health Department should have a trained statistical officer.
(d) Health propaganda should be carried on by Government and local authorities.
(e) Every municipal area should have its own Medical Officer of Health and adequate sanitary staff.
(f) Municipal health officers should belong to a Government cadre though paid by municipal funds.
(g) A similar health staff should be at work in extra-municipal areas where industry is being developed.
In Sind the Government pay grants-in-aid to certain private hospitals, maternity homes etc. The Sind Nurses, Mid-wives, Health Visitors Registration Act, 1939, has been passed to provide for the registration and better training of nurses, mid-wives, health visitors and dais. In Coorg a Public Health Department has been constituted for the whole of Coorg under the control of the Civil Surgeon, Coorg. In Assam out of the 11 existing rural Health Inspectors, nine belong to the Public Health Department of Assam Government.
201. Comprehensive Public Health Acts should be passed in all provinces.
The Bills on this subject have been drafted by the Governments of Bombay, Bengal, Orissa and U. P. but their further consideration has been held in abeyance for various reasons. An Act has been passed in Coorg known as the Coorg Public Health Act, 1943, and certain portions of the Act have been applied to certain local areas with effect from 1st January, 1944.
203. (a) Every provincial health department should include a malariologist on its headquarters staff.
(b) Every railway administration should employ a full-time. malariologist and should give a lead in anti-malarial activities to the focal bodies. in their areas.
(c) Boards of Health and Welfare in mining areas should include on their medical staff an officer with expert knowledge of malaria and its prevention.
Malariologist have been attached to the Public Health establishment in Madras and Sind. In Assam the advice and assistance of the malariologist of the Assam Medical Research Society is availed of by the Public Health Department when necessary. In Coorg the Assistant Health Officer has received special training in malariology.
204. Surveys should be made by Government medical departments of the medical facilities required in urban and industrial areas. These surveys should be considered at joint conferences of the parties interested.
Public Health Acts and percentage grants so should enable Government to supervise, inspect and insist on minimum standards.
No such surveys have so far been undertaken by most of the Provincial Governments. It is, however, hoped that as a result of the survey made by the Health Survey and Development Committee appointed by the Government of India and the Health Insurance scheme which is at present under consideration of the Government of India, adequate medical facilities will be available to urban and industrial areas in due course.
206. A hospital of any size should have a woman doctor on its staff who should be in charge of all activities dealing with the health and welfare of women and children.
In Sind lady doctors have been appointed at all civil hospitals except Jakobabad. In Coorg a lady Sub-Assistant Surgeon has been appointed permanently at the Virajapet hospital. In U. P. medical needs of women are catered for by Duffering hospitals which exist in all important towns and cities of the province.
209. In the larger industrial areas Government, Local authorities and industrial managements should co-operate in the development of child welfare centres and women's clinics Government should give percentage grants for approved schemes.
In Madras in recent years local bodies have shown greater appreciation of the importance of maternity and child welfare work and Government is encouraging them and helping them to stabilise their work by giving half grants for the construction of centres and maintenance grants at the rate of one-fourth of the actual expenditure incurred by them on maternity and child welfare work. Madras Government also proposes to instruct the Director of Public Health (who is consulted by the local bodies in this respect) to see that when local bodies open new centres the need of Industrial areas is also considered. The Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited has under consideration a scheme in consultation with the Officers of the Bihar Government. In Orissa efforts are being made generally to establish child welfare and maternity centres through local organisation and to consolidate the work in the existing centres.
210. Trained mid-wives should be obtained for work in welfare and maternity centres.
In Sind schemes for the training of 40 mid-wives and 10 assistant mid-wives have been approved and put into operation. In Assam 119 trained nurses and mid-wives were employed for this purpose during the year 1942.
In Coorg 4 village women are being trained in mid-wifery every year.
211. Maternity benefit legislation should be enacted throughout India on the lines of the schemes operating in Bombay and the Central Provinces.
(a) Legislation should be confined to women employed full time in perennial factories covered by the Factories Act.
(b) The1 scheme should be non-contributory; in the first instance the entire cost of benefit should be borne by the employer.
(c) Government should have power to exempt individual firms whose existing schemes are at least as liberal as those contained in the Act.
(d) In the event of any general scheme of social insurance being adopted, maternity benefits should be incorporated and the cost shared by the State, the employer and the worker.
(e) The rate of benefit given by the Central Provinces Act is suitable for general application.
(f) The maximum benefit period should be 4 weeks before and weeks after child birth.
(g) The qualifying period should in no case be less than 9 months and might be fixed at 12 months.
(h) The more closely benefit can be linked with treatment the better probably the best method is to give benefit in any case and to add a confinement bonus only if a trained mid-wife or hospital treatment is utilised. Failure to use existing facilities should not disqualify the applicant, but bonus and benefit together should not exceed the amount laid down in the Act.
(i) The administration of the Act should be entrusted to the factory inspection staff and, wherever possible, to women factory inspectors.
Maternity benefit legislation has now been enacted in the provinces of Madras, Bombay, Bengal, Orissa, Assam, C. P. and Berar and Sind. To Bombay Act, 1929, with certain modifications, has been extended to Ajmer-Merwara and Delhi. The Bihar Government is considering the enactment of a maternity benefit legislation on the lines of the Maternity, benefit Acts passed in other provinces. The Central Government has passed an Act entitled the Mines Maternity Benefit Act, 1941, to provide for payment of maternity benefit to women employed in the Mines.
212. All methods should be explored that may lead to the alleviation of existing hardships arising from the need of provision for sickness.
(a) Material should first be collected for the framing of an estimate of the incidence of sickness among workers, special statistical inquiries being instituted in selected centres as soon as possible :
(b) Assistance might be obtained from (i) railways and Government factories, (ii) employers who already have sickness benefit schemes,
(iii) experiments voluntarily conducted by employers;
(c) The statistics should be collected with expert medical and actuarial advice and the co-operation of employers and representatives of workers.
(d) The preliminary enquiries might be conducted by the Government of India who might secure for the purpose of a small informal committee from the Central Legislature including representatives of capital and labour. These with medical actuarial and statistical assistance should be able to advise as to the nature of statistics required, the centres where they might be collected, the sources from which, and the means whereby, they should be obtained.
(e) Thereafter the question of framing schemes should be referred to a formal committee with instructions to examine the material and to make recommendations for the institution, if and where possible, of definite schemes.
(f) Pursuing the line of building on existing foundations the Commission commend for examination the outline of tentative scheme based on separate medical provision, possibly by Government, and financial benefits in the form of paid sick leave given through employers on the basis of contributions by themselves and by the workers.
Prof. B. P. Adarkar was appointed as Officer on Special Duty, Sickness Insurance, on the 16th March 1943. A penal of advisers (representing Employers and Workers) was appointed to assist and advise him and an Actuarial Committee was also appointed for this purpose. In the light of the discussions with the Panel of Advisers and Actuaries, he prepared a comprehensive report on Health Insurance for industrial workers in August 1944. This report was considered in a preliminary way partly at the Sixth Labour Conference held in October 1944 and more fully at the meeting of the Standing Labour Committee held in March 1945. Labour Department also had the expert guidance of Messrs. M. Stack (Chief of Social Insurance Services) and R. Rao (Chief of the Asiatic Services) of the International Labour Office. In the light of discussions with them as also with the Health Survey and Development Committee and the Education, Health and Land Department, a revised, integrated scheme of health insurance, workmen's compensation and maternity benefit was prepared by the Labour Department with particular reference to workers employed in perennial factories. A copy of the scheme was circulated to the Provincial Governments in May 1945 for opinion. Comments from the Provincial Governments have been received and draft bill is under preparation. The scheme inter alia covers Employment Injury Benefit (generally known as Workmen's Compensation) but its scope is limited to factory workers only. The workmen's Compensation Act is much wider in scope and extends to a large number of categories other than the factory workers who will receive better treatment by the introduction of the Unified Scheme. For the sake of uniformity it is desirable to provide benefits similar to those stipulated under the Unified Scheme to Category of non-factory workers by suitable amendment of the Workmen's Compensation Act.
It is therefore intended that legislation should be introduced in two parts, viz. (a) a Bill to provide a Unified Scheme of Social Insurance and (b) a Bill to amend the Workmen's Compensation Act in a suitable manner.
HOUSING OF THE INDUSTRIAL WORKERS
320. (a) Provincial Governments should make a survey of urban and industrial areas to ascertain their needs in regard to housing.
(b) They should then arrange for conferences with all interested parties in order that decisions may be taken as to practicable schemes and the method whereby their cost could be shared.
(c) Local authorities should be responsible for the development and lay out of industrial areas and for the provision and maintenance of proper sanitary conditions.
(d) Where suitable. Government land is available, Government should be prepared to sell or lease it to those who agree to build houses within specified period.
(e) Government should announce their willingness to subsidise in this or other ways employers' housing schemes approved by them.
In Bihar the question of the housing of industrial workers was not taken up for consideration until 1940 when the Bihar Labour Enquiry Committee dealt with this important question and made several recommendations., At these recommendations will ential an extensive enquiry, the Commissioner of Labour Bihar, has been asked to undertake the work as, soon as possible. In U. P. the Provincial Government proposes to undertake the necessary survey after the War so as to have a correct picture: of the actual state of affairs. In Sind a family budget enquiry has been held and this will provide some statistical data regarding housing conditions in working class localities in Karachi. Housing conditions have been surveyed by the Labour Investigation Committee also in 34 industries in which ad hoc surveys have been carried out.
222. Town Planning Acts are urgently required in the Bombay and Bengal Presidencies and would be useful in other provinces; if the Madras-Act is ineffective it should be made adequate.
These Acts should provide for the acquisition and lay-out of suitable areas for working class housing: the opening up and reconstruction of congested and insanitary areas: Government grants and loans to approved schemes: the 'zoning' of industrial and urban areas.
The Bombay Town Planning Act, 1915, has been amended so as to enable municipalities to prepare scheme for opening up congested and insanitary areas. The recommendations of the Kale Committee on the question of modernising housing legislation, relating to the clearance and improvement of slum areas and introduction of housing schemes for the poorer classes were considered by Government and it has been decided that any scheme of improvement on a larger scale cannot be taken up without the enactment of a Special Housing Act and without Government subsidies. In view of the fact that any such legislation would be of a controvenial nature it has been decided that its enactment should be postponed until the parliamentary form of Government is restored. ln Madras the question of enacting legislation providing for an Improvement.
Trust for the city of Madras is under the active consideration of Government. The Trust when set up will tackle the problem of housing the poor. The U. P. Town Improvement Act, 1919, contains sufficient provisions for town planning. There are also many provisions in the U. P. Municipalities Act which enable Municipal Boards to undertake many of the functions of town planning . The U. P. Government has also constituted a Development Board for Cawnpore to look after the development of the city. In Coorg there is a chapter in the Coorg public Health Act for controlling construction of buildings and therefore no further action is considered necessary. Moreover, there are no industrial workers on a large scale in Coorg except in estates where the employers see to the housing of the workers.
228. Every effort should be made to evolve cheaper types of houses,
Government might consider the possibility of offering prizes for plans and specifications of working class houses costing not more than a fixed amount.
In U. P. plans for cheap houses have been evolved in connection with the workmen's quarters in ordnance factories and steps are being taken to make such plans available to the public in particular to Improvement Trusts, municipalities and employers' associations.
235.(a) Steps should be taken to ensure that the agreement to pay compensation in accordance with the Indian Act is obligatory on all shipowners engaging Indian seamen and that dependants are capable of enforcing this agreement.
(b) The possibilities of giving Indian seamen the right to compensation whilst serving oh ships registered outside India should be further explored by the Government of India and the Home Office. Special attention should be given to the possibility of extending the Act to Indian seamen whilst serving on all ships within India's territorial waters and on British ships engaged in the coastal trade of India.
The proposal involves an amendment of the Indian Merchant Shipping Acts, and the question of enacting necessary legislation is under consideration of the Government of India along with several other proposals for the amendment of the Acts.
272. The possibility of establishing permanent courts in place of ad hoc tribunals under the Act should be examined.
The recommendation is under the consideration of the Government of India in connection with other proposals for revising the Act.
274. Every provincial Government should have an officer or officers whose duty it would be to undertake the work of conciliation and to bring the parties privately to agreement.
The Bombay Trade Disputes Conciliation Act, 1934, has been repealed and the Bombay Industrial Disputes Act, 1938, has been in operation since June 1939. The Act has so far been made applicable to the Cotton textile Industry in Bombay City and to the woollen textile industry in Bombay City and Thana. Under the Act, the Commissioner of Labour acts as Chief Conciliator and 3 Assistant Commissioners of Labour as Conciliators. Sometimes special Conciliators also are appointed. Only factories employing 20 or more persons are covered by the Act.
As far as other industries and factories are concerned, the Commissioner of labour and an Assistant Commissioner of Labour try to bring about settlement of disputes between employers and employees by having informal negotiations with the parties. In U. P. the Provincial Government have appointed a whole time Conciliation Officer. In the Central Provinces the Government has appointed a Labour Commissioner in 1942 who performs these duties.
Health and Welfare in Plantations
297. On all plantations managers should be required to maintain birth and death registers, and by inspection Government should ensure that these are reasonably accurate.
In Madras, the question of amending the Registration of Births and Deaths Act in this regard is under consideration. In Coorg under the Coorg Registration of Births and Deaths Act 1932, which has been extended throughout Coorg, managers of plantations are required to send statistic of birth and deaths in the prescribed forms to the patels of the villages concerned who are to keep the registers of births and deaths under the Act. But the Managers are not maintaining births arid deaths registers as recommended by the Commission. As the existing practice is working satisfactorily no further action is considered necessary by the Chief Commissioner, Coorg.
302. Standard minimum requirements in regard to plinths, floor and cubic space, light and ventilation should be prescribed by the competent authority which should have the power to condemn insanitary houses. Standard type plans to suit varying conditions should also be prepared and made available to garden managements.
In Coorg, the Chief Commissioner states that the owners of estates have as far as possible been effecting improvements to the houses of labourers and does not consider that any further legislation is necessary in this direction.
309. Maternity benefits should be provided for by legislation. The cash benefit to the mother should ordinarily take the form of half her daily wage for a period of 4 weeks before and 4 weeks after child birth. In addition to bonus of Rs. 5 should be given, except where the woman refuses to avail herself of the skilled services of a woman doctor or a trained mid-wife provided by the employer. In the case of plantation labour the condition of a qualifying period of employment should be dispensed with.
The Bengal (Tea Plantations) Maternity Benefit Bill has been passed by the Bengal Legislative Council and is now awaiting its passage through the Bengal Legislative Assembly. The Madras Government have decided to watch for sometime the working of the Madras Maternity Benefit Act before undertaking such legislation for plantation labour. A maternity Benefit Act which also covers plantations has been passed in Assam in 1944 and has become fully operative from 1st September 1945, on which date the rules under the Act came into force.
Emigration of Indian Labour to Burma
323. If any other industry finds it necessary to recruit in India, it should repatriate the; recruited worker as soon as it ceases to pay him his normal wages.
325. There should be a medical inspection of emigrants in India before embarkation.
329. Assisted emigration should be controlled with a view to ensuring that the emigrant is guaranteed maintenance for a reasonable period or repatriation.
330. As soon as a decision has been taken regarding the constitutional position of Burma, the question of immigration should be examined by the Government of India and Burma in consultation with all the interests concerned.
The whole question of future Indian immigration into Burma, including that of the Indian labour is at present the subject matter of negotiations between the Governments of India and Burma. It is proposed that all
evacuees from Burma, including labourers, "should be allowed to return to Burma. In the case of such evacuee labourers it is not proposed to put any impediments or conditions regarding their return. It is further proposed that in future emigration of unskilled labour from India to Burma should be on a quota basis, quotas being fixed by the Burma Government in accordance with the needs of Burma and on the advice of an Emigration Board of an agreed composition. Further such emigration is proposed to be allowed only if such terms of employment are assured to the labourers as are agreed to between the Governments of India and Burma.
Statistics and Administration
341. Whenever possible, investigators engaged on family budget enquiries should receive a course of training with the Bombay Labour Office or some other office which has conducted a successful enquiry.
In Sind an Assistant in the Labour Commissioner's office has received a course of training at the Bombay Labour Office. The Investigators will be working under his guidance.
346. (a) Thorough family budget enquiries should be undertaken in Delhi, Madras, Cawnpore, Jamshedpur and a centre in the Jharia coalfield.
(6) As soon as circumstances permit, the possibility of extending the activities of the Labour Statistics Bureau in Burma to the main oilfields should be considered.
(c) Assistance should be given by the Government of the Punjab to the Board of Economic Enquiry to enable it to institute and direct investigations in the industrial field.
(d) The possibility of establishing a Board of Economic Enquiry in the Central Provinces similar to that in Punjab should be investigated.
Enquiries were undertaken in Madras, Bihar and Cawnpore in the years 1935, 1936, and 1938-39 respectively by the Provincial Governments concerned. As a result of the recommendations made by the Rao Court of enquiry, family budget enquiries are being undertaken by the Director, Cost of Living , in all the centres with the exception of Madras recommended by the Royal Commission.
347. (a) A Labour Commissioner responsible for the administration at labour subjects should be appointed in every province except Assam.
(b) He should be a selected officer and should hold the appointment for a comparatively long period.
(c) He should be responsible for the publication of labour statistics, should have the right to enter all industrial establishment, should be generally accessible both to employers and labour should act as a conciliation officer,
(d) The headquarters of the Labour Commissioner should be in the chief industrial centre of the province.
(e) In provinces where part time appointments have to be made, a combination of the functions of the Director of Industries and of the Labour Commissioner should be avoided.
Labour Commissioners have been appointed in all provinces except Punjab, Orissa and N.W.F.P. In Bengal the Labour Commissioner has been authorised under the Industrial Statistics Act to collect labour statistics.
352. Where there is a substantial industrial population, it should receive, by means of a franchise or in some other way, the power to exercise an adequate influence over the policy of local self governing bodies.
In Madras proposals for implementing the recommendation so far as the local bodies other than the Corporation of Madras are concerned are under consideration. In the case of the Corporation of Madras, representation for industrial labour is secured by the reservation of two seats for labour and by making the electoral rolls of the special labour constituencies of the Madras Legislative Assembly applicable to the conduct of the elections of these two reserved seats.
Appointment of a Labour Commission for the Central Government 348. A Labour Commissioner should be appointed for the Central Government.
The Government of India have established a machinery to deal with industrial relations in industries and undertakings falling within their sphere namely:—
(i) All industrial establishments owned or controlled by the Government of India;
(ii) Federal Railways;
(iii) Mines and Oilfields; and (iv) Major Ports.
The organisations consist of the following:—
(i) A chief Labour Commissioner (Central) with headquarters at New Delhi.
(ii) Three Regional Labour Commissioners (Central) with headquarters at Bombay, Calcutta and Lahore, respectively.
(iii) A Deputy Labour Commissioner (headquarters) at New Delhi.
(iv) Nine Conciliation Officers and 23 Labour Inspectors (Central) located at various centres throughout India.
(v) One Central Inspector of Industrial Canteens (to be appointed shortly).
The function and powers of the new organisation are detailed below:—
(a) Industrial relations and conciliation.—These include in particular, assistance in the formation and maintenance of voluntary machinery in industrial establishments prevention
and settlement of trade disputes, and maintenance of continuous touch with the state of relations between employers and workers.
(b) Labour welfare (excluding welfare in coal mines for which a separate organisation exists under the Coal Mines Welfare Commissioner), including examination of welfare measures and advice to employers and Governments in connection therewith. The Central Inspector of Industrial Canteens will inspect and advise on the setting up of canteens in undertaking under the control of the Central Government.
(c) Operation of labour laws to the extent to which their administration is the responsibility of the Central Government (except in so far as separate machinery has been provided).
(d) Maintenance of information regarding wage rates and conditions of work.
The Chief Labour Commissioner (Central) the Regional Labour Commissioners (Central) and the Conciliation Officers (Central) have been vested with statutory powers of conciliation under section 18A of the Trade Disputes Act, 1929. The Chief and Regional Labour Commissioners have also been appointed as Supervisors of Railway Labour under the Indian Railways Act, 1890 and as Inspectors under the Payment of Wages Act, 1936. They have also been authorised to act under the Employment of Children Act, 1938, for Federal Railways and major ports.
Relation to existing machinery.—(i) Conciliation Officer (Railways) and Supervisor of Railways Labour— Hitherto the Conciliation Officer (Railways) has been responsible for conciliation work on the following Railways only : East Indian, Bengal and Assam, Bengal Nagpur and Calcutta Port Commissioners' Railways. Hereafter, the Chief Labour Commissioners (Central) and his officers will be responsible for conciliation on all Federal Railways and for administration of the Hours of Employment Regulations under the Railways Act. The Conciliation Officer (Railways) and Supervisor of Railway Labour and the Deputy Supervisor of Railway Labour have ceased to have separate existence.
(2) Labour Welfare Adviser and Assistant Labour Welfare Advisers— (a) the Assistant Labour Welfare Advisers have been designated as Conciliation Officers (Central) and will work under the Regional Labour Commissioners (Central).
(b) The post of Labour Welfare Adviser has since been abolished.
Relationship of the industrial relations machinery to the administrative machinery of departments and establishments.
Labour Officers (or Labour Welfare Officers, Civilian Labour Officer etc.) in individual establishments will continue to function under their respective establishments or administrations. The Chief Labour Commissioner (Central), and his officers will maintain close liaison with the administrative machinery of various Departments and establishments.
353. (a) In the frame-work of the future constitution, provisions should be made for an organisation (the Industrial Council), which would
enable representatives of employers, of labour and of Governments to meet regularly in conference to discuss labour measures and labour policy.
(b) The council should be sufficiently representative but not 'too large. The representatives of labour should be elected by registered trade unions, and where there are no registered trade unions of any size they should be nominated by Government. The employers' representatives should also be elected by associations of employers, whose voting power should be approximately proportionate to the number of workers which their Members employ.
(c) The Council should meet annually and its president should be elected at each annual session. The secretary of the Council should be a permanent official responsible to it for the current business throughout the year.
(d) Functions of the Council :
(i) to examine proposals for labour legislation referred to it and also to initiate such proposals,
(ii) to promote a spirit of co-operation and understanding among those concerned with labour policy and to provide an opportunity for an interchange of information regarding experiments in labour matters,
(iii) to advise the Central and Provincial Governments on the framing of rules and regulations.
(iv) to advise regarding the collection of labour statistics and the coordination and development of economic research.
354. If labour legislation is central, the authority finally responsible for such legislation must be the Central Legislature. If labour legislation is to be decentralised, some coordinating body will be necessary. The decisions of the Council could not be given mandatory power, but in certain circumstances it might be made obligatory for Provincial Governments within a specified time to submit proposals for legislation to their respective legislatures for a decision as to their adoption or rejection.'
355. Votes in the Industrial Council should be recorded separately in three groups, one including employers' representative, one workers representatives and one the remaining members.
356. Where there is the danger of establishments being transferred to Indian States in order to escape regulation, an effort should be made to obtain the co-operation of the adjoining State.
357. (a) The possibility of making labour legislation both a federal and provincial subject should be considered.
(b) If federal legislation is not practicable efforts should be directed to securing that, as early as possible, the whole of India participates in making progress in labour matter.
(c) For States in which there is appreciable industrial development, the Industrial Council should offer a suitable channel for co-operation.
Though no provision has yet been made in the constitution for the establishment of the Industrial Council, executive action has been taken by the Central Government to give effect to the recommendation. Three Labour Conferences were held in New Delhi under the auspices of the
F.N. 35—2 M of Lib,/56
Labour Department of the Government of India during the years 1940, 1941 and 1942 respectively. The representatives of the Central Government, Provincial Governments and some of the Indian States' Governments were only invited to attend these Conferences. In 1942 Government decided to invite representatives of employees and workers also to these Conferences. The first Conference in which representatives. of Governments (Central and Provincial) States, employers and employees participated was held in New Delhi on the 7th August, 1942. The Conference being convinced that a collaborative machinery composed of Ac representatives of Governments, employers and workers in India should be established forthwith for the consideration of all the questions relating to conditions of labour resolved that,
"A plenary Conference shall be constituted as follows:—
(1), The Hon'ble the Labour Member of Government of India— Chairman.
(2) 3 representatives of the Government of India including 1 representative to represent Minor Administrations,
(3) 11 representatives of Provinces,
(4) 6 representatives of the Industrially important States,
(5) 2 representatives of the Chamber of Princes to represent other States.
(6) 11 representatives of employees of whom 4 will be nominated by Government in agreement with the All-India Trade Union Congress, 4 will be nominated by Government in agreement with the Indian Federation of Labour and 3 will be nominated by Government as representative of other employees' interests.
(7) 11 representatives of employers of whom 4 will be nominated by Government in agreement with the Employers Federation of India, 4 will be nominated by Government in agreement with the All-India Organisation of Industrial Employers and 3 will be nominated by Government to represent other classes of employers.
"2. The Conference shall meet at least once a year, the first meeting being held in Delhi and subsequent meetings held at such places as may be decided upon from time to time".
"3. The Plenary Conference shall advise the Government of India on any matters referred to it for advice taking into account suggestions made by Provincial Governments, States, and the Chamber of Princes and the representative organisations of employers and workers recognised for the purposes of the Conference".
The Conference further resolved "that a Standing Labour Committee shall be be constituted composed as follows:—
(1) The Hon'ble the Labour Member of the Government of India —Chairman.
(2) 1 representative of the Government of India,
(3) 1 representative of the Governments of Bengal, Bombay and the United Provinces,
(4) (i) 1 representative to represent the Provinces of Madras and the C.P. & Berar,
(ii) 1 representative to represent the Provinces of Assam, Bihar and Orissa,
(iii) 1 representative to represent the Provinces of the Punjab, Sind and N.W.F.,
(5) 3 representatives of Indian States, including one representing the Chamber of Princes,
(6) 5 representatives of Employers,
(7) 5 representatives of Employees.
"2. The Standing Labour Committee shall consider and examine such questions as may be referred to it by the Plenary Conference or by the Central Government taking also into account suggestions made by Provincial Governments, States, the Chamber of Princes, and representative organisations of workers and employers.
"3. The Standing Labour Committee shall meet as often as it may be convened by the Central Government for the consideration of questions that may be before it.
"4. The Committee shall be competent—
(a) to advise Government on any matters referred to it by Government provided that copies of any such advise shaft be forwarded to all members of the Plenary Conference.
(b) to report to the Plenary Conference upon any matters referred to it by that Conference."
The following general principles were accepted by the Conference for election to the Standing Committee:—
1. Representatives of angle provinces will be selected by the Governments of those provinces.
2. Representatives of two or more Governments will be selected by agreement between those Governments—a system of selection by rotation might be adopted.
3. Representatives of States to be selected by the Governments of the States,
4. Representative of the Chamber of Princes to be selected in the usual manner.
5. Representatives of employers—
4 to be nominated by the Hon'ble the Labour Member in agreement with the two All-India Associations of Employers to be nominated by the Hon'ble the Labour Member.
6. Representatives of employees—
4 to be nominated by the Hon'ble the Labour Member in agreement with the two main Associations of Employees
1 to be nominated by the Hon'ble the Labour Member."
Sessions of the Plenary Conference and the Standing Labour Committee are being held regularly since August 1942.
Major Recommendations on which no action has yet been taken
No action has yet been taken on the following major recommendation of the Commission:—
Recommendation No. 87.—In the oilfields statutory regulation of rest days, hours, health and safety should be undertaken. Government should consider whether this can be achieved by the application of appropriate sections of. the Mines Act or by separate legislation.
Recommendation No. 184.—Workers' contribution to provident funds maintained by private employers and certified by Government for the purpose should be safeguarded against attachment.
Recommendation No. 262.—The Trade Unions Act should be re-examined in not more than three years' time; all limitations imposed on the activities of registered unions and their officers and members should be reconsidered so as to ensure that the conditions attached to registration are not such as to prevent any well-conducted bona fide union from applying for registration.
Recommendation No. 294.—A Statutory wage-fixing machinery should be established in the Assam plantations after preliminary investigation. (The Government of India have at present under contemplation a legislative measure for fixing minimum wages for workers employed inter alia in plantations.)
Recommendations Nos. 314 & 315.—The employment either directly or with their parents, of children before the age of 10 years should be prohibited by law in plantations. Representatives of the local Governments concerned and of the planters should meet in conference to consider what contribution each can make towards the education of children on the plantations.
Recommendation No. 317.—Boards of Health and Welfare should be established under statute for convenient planting areas.