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Shramshakti (1988): Report of the National Commission on self employed women and women in the informal sector
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close this bookShramshakti (1988): Report of the National Commission on self employed women and women in the informal sector
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View the documentContents
View the documentGrind of Work
View the documentPreface
View the documentChapter 1: Introduction
View the documentChapter 2: Overview
View the documentChapter 3: Demographic and Economic Profile
View the documentChapter 4: Impact of Macro Policies on Unprotected Women Labour
View the documentChapter 6: Occupational Health
View the documentChapter 7: Communication Network System
View the documentChapter 8: On Organising
View the documentChapter 9: Recommendations
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentReferences
Open this folder and view contentsAppendices

References

Chapter III Demographic and Economic Profile

1.    Survey on Infant and Child Mortality, Office of the Registrar General of India, 1979. p.33.

2.    An Analysis of the Situation of Children in India, UNICEF, 1984, p.75.

3.    Women's Accessibility to Health and Family Planning, Indian Council of Medical Research, 1983, p.69.

4.    Survey of Causes of Death (Rural)—Annual Report 1985, Office of the Registrar General, India, 1987, p.22.

5.    Women and Urbanization, National Institute of Urban Affairs, 1987.

6.    An Analysis of the Situation of Children in India, 1984, op. cit,

7.    Sample Registration Scheme, Office of the Registrar General of India, June 1987, pp. 18. 28, 29.

8.    Seventh Five Year Plan, Planning Commission, 1985, p.221.

9.    Sample Registration Scheme, 1987. op, cit., p.21.

10.    Census of India, 1981, Series 1 India, Part II Special, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner for India, p.36.

11.    Ibid, p. 37-38.

12.    O.P. Sharma and R.D. Retherford, Recent Literacy Trends in India, Census of India, Occasional Paper No. 1 of 1987, Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, p.52.

13.    Seventh Five Year Plan, 1985, op. cit., p.322.

14.    Census of India, 1981, Series 1 India, Part II Special, op. cit., p.92.

15.    Based on Selected Educational Statistics 1985-86, Department of Education, 1987, pp. 42- 49.


317

16.    O.P. Sharma and R.D. Retherford, 1987, op. cit., pp.49-52.

17.    National Sample Survey Organisation, Thirty Eighth Round (January-December 1983), No. 341.  Report on the Quinquennial Survey on Employment and Unemployment, Survey Result-All India, Department of Statistics, 1987, pp. 7-14.

18.    Nirmala Banerjee, Some Recent Trends in the Economic Activities of Indian Women, Centre for Studies in Social Sciences/NCSEW 1988.

19.    Ashok Mitra, Participation of Women in Socio-Economic Development in Women and Development. UNESCO, 1981, p. 51.

20.    Devaki Jain and Chand Malani, Report on a Time Allocation Study—Its Methodological Implications, Institute of Social Studies Trust, 1982.

21.    An Analysis of the Situation of Children in India, 1984, op. cit., p. 78.

22.    National Sample Survey Organisation, 1987, op. cit., pp. 337-338.

23.    Quoted in Nirmala Banerjee, 1987 op. cit., p.

24.    Based on the observations contained in the Commission's tour report and Nirmala Banerjee's study Women Workers in Unorganised sector, 1981, p.8, Sangam Publisher.

25.    S.S. Mehta, Technology for Common Man in Informal sector. Some Issues, Gandhi Labour Institute.

26.    Nirmala Banerjee, 1988, op. 44-49. Banerjee has estimated the earnings of female workers by nature of employment, viz., self employed workers, regular salaried workers and casual workers on the basis of factor income estimates provided by the Central Statistical Organisation, in National Account Statistics January, 1986, pp. 27-28.

27.    U. Kalpagam, Women in Labour Force Analysis of NSS Data, Madras Institute for Development Studies/NCSEW, 1987, p. 15.

28.    Nirmala Banerjee, Informality, Vulnerability and Indian Workers, Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, 1988 (b), p.6.

29.    U. Kalpagam, 1987, op. cit., pp.31-32, 161-161.

30.    National Sample Survey Organisation, 1987, op. cit., pp.89, 95.

31.    Ibid, p. 95.

32.    Vasudha Dhagamwar, Impact of Macro Policy on the Employment in the Unorganised Sector in Mining Industry, MARG/NCSEW, 1987.

33.    Nirmala Banerjee, 1988, op. cit., p.24.

34.    Ibid, pp. 21-24.

35.    Gender Bias in Employment of Women in the Urban and Informal Sector, National Institute of Urban Affairs, 1987.

36.    Quarterly Employment Review, January-March 1987, Ministry of Labour, 1987, p.5, 11.

37.    Ashok Mitra, 1980, et.al.. The Status of Women: Shifts in Occupational Participation, 1961-71, Abhinav, 1980.

38.    Nirmala Banerjee, 1988, op. cit., pp. 34-48.

39.    Based on Soma Kishore Parthasarathy, Women Domestic Workers in India, NIPCCD/ NCSEW, 1987.

40.    Women Vendors in India's Urban Centres, National Institute of Urban Affairs, 1987, pp. 12-16.

41.    Based on Manushi Mitra, A Study of the Impact of Operation Flood on Poor Rural Women Dairy Producers, NCSEW, 1987.

42.    Based on Swapna Mukhopadhaya, Women Workers in the Construction Sector, Institute of Economic Growth./NCSEW, 1987.

43.    Vasudha Dhagamwar, Women Workers in Mining, NCSEW, 1987.


318

44.    Dr. Neera Desai, Development of Food Processing Industry in Bombay, SNDT University/NCSEW, 1987 and Mira Savara, Women in Food Processing Industry—A Study in Bombay and Pune, SNDT University/NCSEW, 1987.

45.    Nalini Nayak, Women Fisheries Workers, NCSEW, 1987.

Chapter IV Impact of Macro Policies

1.    This section is based on: Kumud Sharma, National Policies for Natural Resource Management and Marginalisation of Poor Rural Women, Centre for Women's Development Studies NCSEW, 1987.

2.    Based on: Discussion with Anil Agarwal and Publication from Centre for Science and Environment.

3.    K. Sardamoni, paper presented at the National Seminar on Women and Agriculture, 1987.

4.    The Narmada Valley Project—Development or Destruction by Kalpavriksh and Hindu College Nature Club, Delhi University. The Ecologist Vol. 5, No. 526, 1985.

5.    The Srisailam Resettlement Experience: the unfold story by a fact finding committee on the Srisailam Project.

6.    Center for Women's Development Studies, Evaluation of Piped Water Supply Project, Banaskantha Dist, Gujarat.

7.    Social Forestry and Law, Indian Law Institute (Mimeo), 1986.

8.    Report of the Workshop on Women, Social Forestry and Waterland Development, Centre for Women's Development Studies, 1987.

9.    Prof. M.N. Panini, Women Workers in the Unorganised Sector: A Study of the Effects of industrialisation in India, Centre for study of Social Systems, JNU, NCSEW, 1988.

10.    Sujata Gothaskar, Labour Women in Drug Industry, EPW, Vol. XXI. Nos. 25 and 26, June 21-24, 1986.

11.    Gita Sen and Leela Gulati, Women Workers in Kerala's Electricity Industry, World Employment Programme Research, working paper, Geneva, ILO. 1987.

12.    L.C. Jain, A Heritage to Keep; the Handicrafts Industry, 1955-85, EPW. XX. May 1986.

13.    Based on: The Summary of Study on KVIC by Centre for Women's Development Studies. 1987.

14.    Based on: L.C. Jain. Women in Handloom Industry, Industrial Development-Service. NCSEW, 1987.

15.    Based on Dr. Maithreyi Krishna Raj, Women and Crafts, Research Unit on Women's Studies, SNDT University, NCSEW, 1987.

16.    SRUTI, Survey of Artisans, (Raw Material and Artisans), unpublished.

17.    L.C. Jain, op. cit, May 1986.

18.    Based on: Usha Jumani, Analysis of Licensing Policy for the Use of the National Resources of Land, Forest and Its Effect on Women Labour Force, Self Employed Women's Association, NCSEW, 1987.

19.    Based on: Usha Jumani, Analysis of Institutional funds flow and its Effect on Women's Work, Self Employed Women Association, NCSEW, 1987.

20.    National Policy on Education, Department of Education, 1986.

21.    Institute of Social Studies Trust, Study of Utilisation and Wastage of Training Programmes of National and Regional Vocational Training Institute for Women, 1986.

22.    This section is based on: Indira Hirway, Impact of Anti-Poverty Programmes on Women, Gandhi Labour Institute, NCSEW, 1987.


319

23.    Based on: Swapna Mukhopadhyay, Women Workers in Construction Sector, Institute of Economic Growth, NCSEW, 1988.

24.    Based on: Vasudha Dhagamwar, The Impact of Macro Policies on the Employment of Women in the Unorganised Sector in Mining, MARG, NCSEW, 1987.

25.     Women Vendors in India's Urban Centres, National Institute of Urban Affairs, NCSEW, 1987.

26.    Soma Kishore Parthasarathy, Women Domestic National Institute of Urban Affairs, NCSEW, 1987.

27.    J.M. Mulani, women's Participation in Cooperative Development, Gujarat State Cooperative Union, a note presented to the Commission, 1987.

28.    Shashi Rajgopalan, Cooperative Legislation and Self Employed Women, Samakhya, NCSEW, 1987.

29.    This section is based on: Women and urbanisation. National Institute of Urban Affairs, NCSEW, 1987.

30.    Menaka Roy, Housing and Unorganised Women, NCSEW, 1987.

31.    This section is based on: Mina Swaminathan. Child Care Services for Working Women, Mobile Creches, NCSEW, 1987.

Chapter V Legislative Protection

1.    This section is based on: S.C. Gupta and V.P. Gupta, Labour laws and Women Workers, A Study commissioned by NCSEW, 1987.

2.    This section is based on: Geeta Ramakrishna and Anjali Rage, Construction Workers,—A Study commissioned by NCSEW, 1987.

3.    This section is based on: M.D. Mistry, Women Forest Workers—A Study commissioned by NCSEW, 1987.

4.    This section is based on: Dr. Gail Omvedt, Women Workers and Agriculture—A Study commissioned by NCSEW, 1987.

5.    This section is based on: Gita Ramaswamy, Women Workers and Agriculture—A Study commissioned by NCSEW, 1987.

6.    This section is based on: Nalini Nayak, Women Fisheries Workers- A Study commissioned by NCSEW, 1987.

7.    This section is based on: Rani Advani, Municipal and Police Laws viz-a-viz Women Workers—A Study commissioned by NCSEW, 1987.

8.    This section is based on: Shashi Rajgopalan, Women and Cooperative Law—A Study commissioned by NCSEW, 1987.

Chapter VI Occupational Health

1.    Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI) Women in India—surviving against odds. New Delhi: VHAI, 1987.

2.     Manisha Gupte, and Borkar, Anita Women's work fertility and access to health care—a socio-economic study of two villages in Pune district. Foundation for Research in Community Health, Bombay, for Task Force on Health, National Commission Self-Employed Women (and women in the informal sector), 1987.

3.     Rohini, P.M., Sujata S.V., and Neelam, C. My life is one long struggle—women's work organisation and struggle. Pratishabad Publishers, 1983.


320

4.     Gothoskar, Sujata and Banaji, Rohini "A Challenge for Unions—women's employment in pharmaceuticals and food industries" Manushi, Number 23, 1984.

5.     Mehrotra, Deepti "Invisible Labour Force—women paper bag makers in Delhi" Manushi, Jan.-Feb. 1983, New Delhi, 1983. 5a Ranadive, Vimal "Women in the cashew industry—among the lowest paid workers in Kerala", Manushi, No. 12. 1982.

6.     National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) Health Hazards of Slate-Pencil workers at Mandsaur NIOH, Annual Report, 1982, Ahmedabad, 1983.

7.     Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) "Ghatak Dhool" (Hindi), 1984.

8.     Chatterjee,' Mirai, Occupational health issues of home-based piece rate workers, Self-Emplloyed Women's Association, 1987.

9.     Rao, Rukmini, V. "Garment Women Workers—A note prepared for the Health task Force," based on research for the Invisible hands: Women and home-based production in garment export industry, Delhi. Paper presented at the "Women and the Household' Conference, January 1985.

10.     Azad, Nadini Empowering Women Workers, Madras, 1986.

11.     International Labour Organisation (ILO) Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety, third (revised) edition. Vol. 1 and Vol. 1983.

12.     Sen Gupta, Arindam "The Curse of Katni—Limestone Industry workers dying through barbaric exploitation," Probe India, June 1983.

13.     International Labour Organisation, 1983 op, cit.

14.     Datar, Chhaya, "Divisions and Unity—dynamics of organizing beedi and tobacco workers at Nipani, Mansuhi, No. 33, 1986.

15.     Society for Participatory Research in Asia, 1984, op, cit.

16.     Gothoskar, Sujata, "Sexual harassment at the workplace," Eve's Weekly, December 1980. 

17.     Pawar, Amarja, The Pune Domestic Servants' Revolt Institute of Social. Research and Education, 1982.

18.     Chaudhury, Pratima, "Women Sweepers of Patna," Social Welfare, May 1986.

19.     Shah, Nandita, Women rag-pickers, Nirmala Niketan, College of Social Work, 1983.

20.     Prerana, A Study of Prostitute women in Kamathipura, Prerana, 1987.

21.     Singh, Tavleen, "A Case for freeing prostitutes from the clutches of polices," Manushi, No. 27, March-April, 1985.

22.     Gothoskar, 1980, op, cit.

23.     Burnad, Fatima, "Despite heavy odds", Manushi, No. 19, 1983.

24.     Agrawal, Anil, Impact of environment destruction on women and children in rural and tribal areas. Paper presented at the National Seminar on Human Ecoloy and Child Development organised by NIPCCD, 1984.

25.     Akhouri, M.M.P. and Shinha, S.K., "Health and safety of agricultural workers handling hazardous chemicals, National Labour Institute Bulletin, Vol. IX., No. 3&4, July-December 1983.

26.     Batliwala, Shrilatha. "Analysis of Mandwa Death Information, 1982. Foundation for Research in Community Health, 1983.

27.     Daswani, Mona, "Analysis of Mandwa death information," 1983, Foundation for Research in Community Health, 1984.

28.     Deccan Herald (Special correspondent), "Hazards from paddy husk, Occupational hazards V-1, 24 December, 1984.


321

29.     Horwitz, B, and Kishwar, Madhu, "Family life, the unequal deal—women's conditions and family life among agricultural labourers and small farmers in a Punjab village, Manushi, No 11, 1982. 

30.    "What is the difference between one human being and another? Those who have two handfuls of soil are superior, those who have four are still more superior—an interview with landless Harijan women in a Punjab village (from Jailara) Manushi, December 1979—January 1980.

31.    PT I Science Service (News item), "The hazards of farm dust. Financial Express, 15th September, 1985.

32.    Sarin, Madhu, Some insights into rural women's lives—a study of village projects in Haryana/ Manushi, No 35, 1986.

33.    Saxena, Mona, "A report on unorganised women workers in an agricultural village in Madhya Pradesh, Task Force on Health, 1987.

34.    Department of Science and Technology (DST), "Occupational and environmental health problems DST, Government of India, 1984.

35.    International Labour Organisation, 1983, op, cit.

36.     International Labour Organisation Conditions of work of women and young workers on plantations, 1984.

37.    Ministry of Labour, Government of India, Socio-economic conditions of women workers in plantations. Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour, Govt of India, 1980 38 Basanti "Tea pluckers in Assam" 1984.

39.    Ray, Sankar Occupational hazards—tea plantations Update, 31st March—3rd April, 1986.

40.    Business Standard (News item) "Red Sand Mining Racket in Haryana Business Standard, 5th August, 1983.

41.    Chhatisgarh Mines Shramik Sangh (CMSS), Mechanisation, retrenchment and women (leaflet), CMSS, Chhatisgarh, 1986.

42.    Gupta, Ramanika, Cheating women out of jobs, Manushi, Jan Feb, 1983.

43.    Gupta, Ramanika, "Between mines and fields—tribal women in Bihar, Manushi, June-July, 1983.

44.    The Hindu (News item), 6th March 1987.

45.    The Hindu (News item) "What's wrong with mine safety" The Hindu, 25th July, 1983.

46.    "They give us light but live in darkness" Manushi, Dec 1979—January, 1980.

47.    Pardesi Ghanshyam, "Dust unto dust" Illustrated Weekly of India, August, 1985.

48.    Poddar, Minoti, "Women in stone industry join CITU," Voice of Working Women (V W W), July, 1984.

49.    "Nine women killed in mine collapse in Barwara," 2nd Angust, 1986.

50.    Wage Earners (New item)

"Occupational diseases afflicting coal mines" Wage Earners, September 1982.

51.    Sen Gupta, 1983, op, cit.

52.    Evaluation of health hazards in quartz crushing industry and evaluation of dust control measures. National Annual Report, 1985-86, National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH), 1986. 

53.    Committee on the Status of Women in India (1974). Towards equality Report of the Committee on the Status of Women in India, Dept of Social Welfare, Ministry of Education and Social Welfare, Government of India, 1974.


322

54.     Jain, Devaki, The situation of women in the handloom and the construction sectors Ministry of Labour, Government of India, 1984.

55.    Mallika "Women construction workers of Madras," Indian Women, 5th August, 1985.

56.    Manohar, Murali, K Socio-economic status of Indian women, Seema Publication, 1983.

57.    "In the shadow of the Scaffolding", Mobile Creches, 1987.

58.    Manohar. Murali, Shobha, V, and Rao Janardhan, B "Women Construction Workers of Warangal", Economic and Political Weekly, Vol XVI, No, 4, Jan, 24, 1981.

59.    Sinha, G P and Ranade, S N, "Women Construction Workers—Reports of two Surveys" (Delhi, Bihar) ICSSR, 1975.

60.    Society for Participatory Research in Asia (PRIA) Beyond bricks and stones—the voice of construction workers, 1986.

61.    Swaminathan, Mina and Devika Singh, "A continuing experience—the story of mobile creches" Manushi, No 29. 1985.

62.    International Labour Organisation, (ILO) 1983, op, cit.

63.    Gupte and Borkar, 1987, op, cit.

64.    Gulati, Leela, "Profiles in female poverty—a study of five poor working women in Kerala," Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 1981.

65.    Build News (News item), "Women labourers in brick kilns," Build News, October 1982.

66.    Baija "Women workers at the salt-kilns—a report" (Marathi) Baija, May-June, 1980.

67.    Delhi Forum, Salt workers at Markkanam Delhi Forum, undated.

68.    National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) Ergonomic Redesign of handcart Annual Report-1978.

69.    Oza, DK. "Hand-cart pullers of Madras City" Social Welfare, June 1977.

70.    Behal, Suchitra, "On the fodder and fuel trail", Eve's Weekly, 30th March—5th April, 1985.

71.    Centre for Science and Environment (CES) The State of India's Environment, 1984-85, The Second Citizen's Report, 1985.

72.    Deonath, Anuradha, "Women in Drudgery", Hindustan Times, January 1987.

73.    Swarninathan, Madura, A study of energy use patterns in Garhwal Himalaya, Background paper presented at the Technical Seminar on Women's Work and Employment, 9-11 April, 1982, Institute of Social Studies Trust, 1982.

74.    Swarninathan, Madura, "Eight hours a day for fuel collection," Manushi, No 21, 1984.

75 .    Xavier Institute of Social Science

"Women head loaders in tribal Bihar," Manushi, August-September, 1983, New Delhi, 1983.

76.    Prabha Rani "Just one more queue—women and water shortage in Tamil Nadu, Manushi, June-July, 1983.

77.    Centre for Science and Environment, 1985, op, cit.

78.     Bramhe, Sulabha "The growing burdens of Women" Manushi, July-August 1980, and included in Kishwar, Madhu and Vanita, Ruth (Ed), In Search of Answers, 1984.

79.    Hawley, Jonathan "Life's load on their heads'" The Hindu, 24th August, 1986.

80.    Manohar, Mukta "We shall not pay the fine—proclaim the headloaders of Mahablesh-war" (Marathi) Dainik Shramik Vichar, 5th April, 1987.

81.    Sonalkar, Sudhir "We seldom think" Fulcrum, February 1976.

82.    Bhise, Lata and Bhonsle, Leela "A Sign of things to come" Manushi, May-June,

1980. 

83.    Committee on the Status of Women in India, 1974, op, cit.


323

84.     Gothoskar, Sujata The handmaiden's tale", The Indian Post, 8th November, 1987.

85.    Manohar, 1983, op, cit.

86.    Nirmala Niketan, Women Domestic Workers with emphasis on their situation in Bombay, Nirmala, Niketan, College of Social Work.

87.    Prabha Rani and Kaul Poonam, "For two meals a day a report on Tamil Domestic Maids," Manushi, No 35, July-August, 1986.

88.    Roshni Nilaya, Research Department, School of Social Work, A National Socio-economic Survey of domestic workers. Catholic Bishops' Conference of India, undated.

89.    Singh, Sunila, "Tortured for a pair of missing studs", Manushi, June-July 1983.

90.    International Labour Organisation, 1983, op, cit.

91.    General, Municipal, Boilermakers and Union Allied Trades (GMBATU). A fair deal for deaners, GMBATU, 1984.

92.     Mehta, Smita and Rai, Ashok, Municipal Women Sweepers working outfit Phase I National Institute of Design, 1979.

93.    Chaudhury, 1986, op, cit.

94.    Shah, 1983, 'op, cit .

95 .    Bandopadhyaya, Beta

"A Women's Last Report-Prostitution in Calcutta, Manushi, No 23, 1984. 

96.    Bhalerao, V R et al, "Study of STD in Red Light Area of Bombay City." Bulletin of the Indian Medical Association (BIMA).

98.    Daily, (News item)

"Disease stalks city whores". Daily, 30th July, 1987.

99.    De Cunha, Jean,

"Bleak days and nightmares," Indian Post 14th June, 1987.

100.    Guinan, Mary, "Sexually Transmitted Diseases Impact on Women," paper presented at the Conference at Equity Policy Centre, Washington. USA. 1980.

101.    Joshi, Sulabha, "A Study of psycho-physical conditions of prostitutes," Nirmala Niketar, College of Social Work, 1987.

102.    Non, Mangala, "Victims, not offenders". Manushi, No 19, 1983.

103.    Patil, Vimla, "Street-walkers have no doctors," Femina, 12th July 1987.

104.    Shrivastava, Mukta.

"An Analysis of the Problems of Prostitutes in Kamathipura," Bombay Nirmala Niketan, College of Social Work.

105.    Duggal, Ravi and Gupte, Manisha, "Did Manda Padwal die in vain?" Indian Express, 23 September, 1985.

106.    Chatterjee, Mirai and Macwan, Jyoti, Occupational health issues of self-employed women-Agarbatti and masala workers of Ahmedabad SEWA, Ahmedabad, for Task Force on Health of the National Commission, January, 1988.

107.    Aggarwal, Anju, "Fish 'N' Hardship," Femina, February 23rd—March 7, 1987.

108.    Alka, Chetna, "Struggling No 27, March-April, 1984.

109.    Aravamudan, Gita, "Fisherwomen Caught in a net" Eve's Weekly, April 4-10, 1987.

110.    Flavia and Vandana, "Profiles of Working Women", (Unfilled) Society for Promotion of Area Resource Centres (SPARC), unpublished.

111.    Gothoskar, Sujata, "No Wreaths for Ganu," Indian Post, 13th September, 1987.

112.    Jhabvala, Renana, "Claiming what is theirs—struggle of vegetable vendors in Ahmedabad", Manushi, No 32, Jan-Feb. 1986.


324

113.     Lessinger, Johanna,

"Caught between work and modesty Manushi, No. 28, May-June, 1985.

114.    Menon, Leela

"Fisherwomen's dailv drudgery continues" Times of India, 27th October, 1986.

115.    Sadasivam. Bharati and Singh, Sunila, Submissive and cheap labour force-sales girls in Madras, Manushi, No 13, 1982.

116.    Saxena, Mona, Notes on Women Vendors in Madhya Pradesh Task Force on Health, National Commission on Self-employed women (and women in the informal sector), 1987.

117.    Centre for Science and Environment, 1985, op, cit.

118.    Agarwal, Anil, "Domestic Air pollution—The effect of wood smoke on the health of women", Manushi, No 28, 1985.

119.    Agarwal, Anil, "Woodsmoke-who will put it out?" in Health for the millions Voluntary Health Association of India, Vol XIII, No, 1 and 2 February and April, 1987.

120.    State Planning Institute (undated). Community Bio-gas plant at Fateh Singh Ka Purwa. An Evaluation, Planning Research and Action Division, State Planning Institute, Undated.

121.    Acharya, B T and Saldanha, Denzil, A. Study of nature and causes of poverty among rural artisans' Maharashtra State' workers, Nasik District Centre for Studies in Decentralised Industries, 1983 .

123.    Awachat, Anil, Bia workers of Sinnar Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. IX, No. 24 15th June, 1974. 

124.    Bhatty, Zarina, "The invisible work that feeds the family" Manushi, No. 27, March-April, 1984.

125.    Chowdhury, Neerja. Buds—makers of Madhya Pradesh', Hindustan Times Weekly, 3rd August, 1980.

126.    "Unorganised Sector-high risk low wages," Economic Times, 6th February 1983. 127.     Mehta, Prayag, "We are made to mortgage our children—interviews with women bidi workers of Vellore" Manushi, No. 22, May-June 1984.

128.    Mohandas, M, "Beedi Workers in Kerala," Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. XV, No. 36,  6th September, 1980.

129.    Morje, Anagha, "A study of TB-affected female beech-workers of Ahmednagar city," Tata Institute of Social Sciences.

130.     Nag, A., Chintharia, S, Desai, H. and Chatterjee, B.B., "Occupational Stresses on women engaged in making beedis. National Institute of Occupational Health, 1984. 

131.    National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) Occupational health survey of women workers engaged in beedi-making (rolling) Annual Report, 1983-84.

132.    Patel, Niru, "Worst exploitation in tobacco industry in Gujarat Voice of Working Women. (V W W), September, 1984,

133.     Tripathy, GC, Vasudeo, N.D, Mujumdar, R.D. and Deotale, P.G., "Study of Some health problems of beedi workers," Indian Journal of Occupational Health, Vol. 29. No 4, October-December, 1986.

134.    Tripathi, G.C. Vasudeo, N.D.. Majumdar, R.D., and Deotale, P.G., "Study of lung function in beedi workers," Indian Journal of Occupational Health, Vol. 28, No. 4 October-December, 1985.

135.    Mitra, Nirmal, "The Chikan workers of Lucknow," Sunday special, 10th March. 1985.

136.    Department of Science and Technology. 1984, op, cit.


325

137.     Committee on the Status of Women in India, 1974, op, cit.

138.    Mies, Maria, "Lace, Class and capital accumulation—the dynamics of the sexual division of labour in a household industry." Institute of Social Studies. The Hague 1980.

139.     Mies, Maria, "Dynamics of Sexual Division of Labour & Capital Accumulation—Women lace workers of Narsapur" Economic and Political Weekly, Vol, XVI, Nos 10, 11 & 12, 1981.

140.    Chatterjee, Mirai and Macwan, Jyoti, 1988, op, cit.

141.    Patel, B B, "Work, Working conditions and earnings agarbatti workers in Ahmedabad, Gandhi Labour Institute, Ahmedabad, undated.

142.    Voluntary Health Association of India (VHAI), Agarbatti in Information, June, 1985.

143.    Mehrotra, 1983, op, cit.

144.    Deepti and Mehta, Pusha, "Behind the glitter—zardozi workers in Delhi," Manushi, No 24, 1984.

145.    Department of Science and Technology, 1984, op, cit.

146.    Hussein, Sahia, "Muslim Weavers of Barabanki", Voice of Working Women (V W W), Vol 1, No 6, Nov-Dec, 1981.

147.     Ghosal, Soumyajit and Chakraborti. Debkumar, An Ergonomic study on the ready-made garment workers at Ahmedabad for improvement of health, safety, efficiency at work and productivity. Ergonomics Laboratory, National Institute of Design, 1987.

148.    Chatterjee, 1987, op, cit.

149.    Department of Science and Technology (DST), Occupational and Environmental Health Problems of Indian Women DST, Government of India.

150.    Department of Science and Technology, 1983, op, cit.

151.    Department of Science and Technology, 1983, op, cit.

152.    Department of Science and Technology, 1983, op, cit.

153.    Department of Science and Technology, 1983, op, cit.

154.    Department of Science and Technology, 1983, op, cit.

155.    Desai, Neera and Gopalan, Prema, (Mimeo)

"Changes in the food-processing industry from traditional to modern forms as its impact on women's role and status.

ICSSR and Indo-Dutch Programme, August 1983,

Delhi, 1983

156.    Institute of Social Studies Trust (ISST) (mimeo) Employment of women from Kerala in the fish processing units of Gujarat, 1984.

157.    Loening, Ariane, "Prawn fish head cutters of Haroa", Manushi, No 24, 1984.

158.    Ranadive, Vimal, "Kerala fisher-women in Veraval", Voice of Working Women, November, 1984.

159.     Nair, Aravindakshan, K (mimeo) 

Women Workers in cashew industry in Kerala—a summary) ICSSR, Programme of Women's Studies 

New Delhi, undated.

160.    Ranadive, Viamal, 1982, op, cit.

161.    Vigilindia, "Cashew Workers' plight in Kanyakumari" Vigilindia, No 15, August 1980,.

162.    Mathew, Molly (mimeo), Women workers in the unorganised sector of coir industry in Kerala (summary), ICSSR New Delhi, undated.


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163.    National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) Occupational Health hazards in coir workers, (pilot study) Annual Report, 1978.

164.    National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) Occupational Health Hazards in Coir Workers (Phase-l) environmental study Annual Report, 1979.

165.    National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) Occupational Health Hazards in coir workers, (phase-lI) (Health status) Annual Report. 1980.

166.    National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) Health hazards in wool industry Annual Report, 1983-84.

167.    Dogra, Bharat "Glass workers' grouses," Hindustan Times, 15th February, 1987.

168 .    Department of Science and Technology, 1983, op, cit.

169.     Rao. l Rukmini, V, Note prepared for the Health Task Force, 1987.

170.     Santacruz Women's Health Centre, (SWHC) Clean, Light Industry SWHE, Newsletter USA, 1980.

171.    Sharma, R N and Sengupta, C, "Women Employment at SEEPZ, Bombay Unit for Urban Studies, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, 1984.

172.    National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH) Health Hazards of Slate-pencil workers at Mandsaur Annual Report, 1981.

173.    Society for Participatory Research in Asia, 1984, op, cit.

174.    Kothan, Smithu, "The child-labourers of Sivakasi' Peoples Union for Civil Liberties, 1983.

175.    International Labour Organisation (ILO) 1983, op, cit.

176.    National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH). "Occupational health problems among beedi tobacco processing workers—a preliminary study". Annual Report, 1980.

178.    Gothoskar, Sujata, "Conditions of women in small-scale pharmaceutical industries", 1986.

179.    Gothoskar, Sujata and Banajiw, Rohini, "Making the workplace a better place for women Manushi, No 24, September-October, 1984.

180.    Gothoskar, Sujata, Banar Rohini and Kanhere Vijay "Health of women in the 'Health' industry" Socialist Health Review. Vol 1 No 2, 1984.

181.    Voluntary Health Association of India, 1987, op, cit.

182.    Shatrugna, Veena. Women and health. Research Centre on Women's Studies, SNDT Women's University, Bombay, undated.

183.    Shatrugna, undated, op, cit.

184.    Shatrugna, undated, op, cit.

185.    Shatrugna, undated, op, cit.

186.    Azad, 1986, op, cit.

187.    Kashtakan Sanghatana. The Bhutali Phenomenon—why are women hunted down as witches? Socialist Health Review, Vol. 1, No 2 September, 1984.

Chapter VII Communication Network Systems

1.     Kamala Bhasin, Women and Technological Change in Agriculture. The Asian and African Experience paper presented at the workshop on women. Technology and Forms of Production held at MIDS, 1984.

2 .    This section is based on Savia Viegas, Analysis of Popular English Women s Journals, (Manorama, Grihashobha,) NCSEW, 1987.


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3.    This section is based on: Mrinal Pande, Analysis of Popular Hindi Women's (Manorama, Grihashobha.) NCSEW, 1987.

4.    This section is based on: Veena Poonacha, Projection on Self Employed Women in Print Media, NCSEW, 1987.

5.    Pooja Juyal, Women Workers in Kamdani industry of Lucknow, Giri Institute for Hill Development/NCSEW, 1987.

6.    This section is based on: P.S. Murthi, A Survey of Information Needs of Women Workers in Unorganised Sector from Radio, NCSEW, 1987.

7.    Prabha Krishnan, Visibility of Working Women below Poverty line in Television Programmes, NCSEW, 1987.

8.    Dr. Binod Agarwal and S.R. Joshi, Role of Television in Projection of Life and problems of the Self Employed Women, NCSEW, 1987.

9.    Geeta Bakshi, Doordarshan's Study of Listeners' NCSEW, 1987.

10.   This study is based on: Madhu Kishwar and Ruth Vanita, Projection of Women in Cinema, NCSEW, 1987.

11.    National Policy on Education, Department of Education, 1986. p. 106.

12.     Ibid p. 133.

13.     Prof. lla Pathak, Review of Text Books in Gujarat, Ahmedabad Women's Action Group/NCSEW, 1987.

14.    Department of Education, 1986, op. cit., (p. 133).

15.    Dr. Sarojini Bisaria, Adult Education: Analysis of Text Books, National Council on Education Research and Training/NCSEW, 1987.

16.    Dr. Neera Desai, Role of Government Functionaries on Information Dissemination—A Case Study of Udwada, Research Unit on Women's Studies, SNDT; University/NCSEW 1987.

17.    Dr. S.C. Bhatia, Programmes of Development Agencies, Adult Education Institute, Delhi University/NCSEW, 1987.

18.    Madhu Kishwar, Manushi, No. 42-43, 1987, pp. 73.

19.    Ms. Usha Rai and Suneeta Ghosh, Traditional Forms of Reaching Out in Rajasthan, Times of India/NCSEW, 1987.

20.    The seeds of Change, p. 16.

21.    Savia Viegas, Evaluation of Organisations Working for Target Groups, SNDT University/ NCSEW, 1987.

22.    Savia Viegas, Evaluation of Molkarin Sangathan, SUDT University/NCSEW, 1987.

23.    Savia Viegas, Study of Mobile Creches, SNDT University/NCSEW, 1987.

24.    Srilata Batliwala in Indian Post, April 26, 1987.

Chapter VIII Organizing

1.    Alka and Chetna "When Women Get Land" Manushi No. 19.

2.    Madhu Kishwar "Gandhi on Women" Economic and Political Weekly No. 40 New Delhi Oct. 4 1985 p.p. 1695-96.

3.    Madhu Kishwar, ibid, p. 1695-96.

4.     Vimal Ranadive, "Women & the Labour Movement", Manushi No. 9, New Delhi Jan., 1979.

5.    Towards Equality, Report of the Committee on the Status of Women in India, 1974, p. 53.


328

6.     Monisha Behal—Paper Presented to the National Commission on Self Employed women, February 1988.

7.    Nalini Nayak—The struggle within the Stuggle, Trivandrum.

8.    Gail Omvedt—"Women in Rural Revolt in India, Programme in Comparative Culture, University of California, Occasional Paper No January 1978.

9.    Illina Sen "Mahila Mukti Morcha Dalli Rajhera 'A report from Women's Organisation", Samya Sahkti, Vol 1 No 2, 1984.

10.    Devaki Jain, "Night Patrollers of Manipur", Workers' guest for power.

11.    Gail Omvedt, 1978 op cit.

12.    The Citizens' Report on the State of India's Environment "The Chipko Andolan," 1982.

13.    Monisha Behal 1988, op cit.

14.    Towards Equality 1974 op cit.

15.    Gail Omvedt 1978 op cit.

16.    SEWA— Annual Report 1986.

17.    U. Kalpagam "Organizing Women in Informal Sector—Policies and Practice" MIDS (Madras Institute of Development Studies) Off print 14.

18.    Marty Chen "The Working women's Forum Organizing for Credit and Change". Seeds No 6 New York 1983.

19.    Annapurna Mahila Mandal-Report of Activities, Bombay 1986.

20.    Neerja Chowdhary "A unique programme in Rajasthan (article about women's Development Programme—WDP)" The Statesman, 21 July 1986.

21.    Sebstad Jennifer, "Struggle and development" among Self Employed Women—A Report on SEWA—Agency for International Development Washington March 1982.

22 .    N .S Chowdhary and Srilata Swaminathan "A story of unorganized Tribal Labour", Strategy and Methodology Organizing unorganized Rural Labour. For Social Justice. (Proceedings of Seminar on) organized by Ministry of Labour and Rehabilitation.

23.    Gopa Joshi "Protecting the sources of community to be Slandered by the Community in return, "Manushi No 7.

24.    Gopa Joshi 1981, op cit.

25.    Renana Jhabvala, "Neither a Complete Success, Nor a Total Failure—Report of a SEWA Campaign to Organise. Beedi Workers, "Manushi No 22 New Delhi 1984.

26.    R. Akhileshwar, 'Yashoda's Fight For Her Cattle', Manushi No 41 New Delhi, 1987.

27.    Subhash Mendhapurkar and Linar, 'It's About Changing Our Lives', Manushi No 40, New Delhi, 1987.

28.    Fatima Burnad, "Despite Heavy Odds"—Organizing Harijan Women in Tamil Nadu Village, Manushi No 19 New Delhi, 1983.

29.    From the Memorandum submitted to the NCSEW by the Ibrahimpatnam, Taluka Agricultural Workers' Union, Andhra Pradesh, 1987.

30.    'Madhu Kishwar—"Zameen Kenkar? Jute Onkar' The story of Women's Participation in the Bodh-Gaya Struggle"—(Based on an interview with Manimala of Chhatra Yuva Sangharsha Vahini) Manushi, 1983 (New Delhi).

31.    Sunderlal Bahuguna, "Protecting Their Life—Sources of Community Women's Non-Violent Power in the Chipko Movement" Manushi, July, August, 1980.

32.    Ibrahampatnam, op cit (1987).

33.    Renana Jhabvala, "The Odds They Encounter" article in Hindustan Times, 8 April 1984.

34.    Alka and Chetna, op cit.

35.    Alka and Chetna, op cit.


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36.     Maria Mies, "Landless Women Organise—A case study of an Organization in Rural Andhra—Manushi'—March, April 1983.

37.    Madhu Kishwar, "She works for poor women's rule," Manushi No 4, New Delhi June-July 1983.

38.    Sharda Jain Et at "Women's Development Programme—A Review" Institute of Development Studies, Jaipur December 1986.

39.    Neerja Chowdhary 1986, op cit.

40.    "Where do I Belong"—Manushi, No 33, 1986.

41.    Alka and Chetna—op cit.

42.    Disha—Annual Report 1986.

43.    Amarja Pawar— "Organization of Unorganized, Domestic Workers in Pune struggle for better working conditions, Manushi No 22, 1984.

44.    Marty Chen 1983, op cit.

45.    Jaya Jaitly, "If nobody fights, we will—Rope makers of Ghar" Manushi, No 41, 1987.

46.    Alice Garg, Balrashmim Jaipur in the Report of the National Workshop on Organizing Self employed Women in India 1981.

47.    Fatima Burnad, 1983 op cit.

48.    Swaminathan Mina and Devika Singh "A Continuing Experiment", Manushi No 29, 1985.

49.    Alice Garg—op cit (1981).

50.    Fatima Burnad, 1983 op cit.

51.    Nirmala Banerjee "Informality, Vulnerability and the Indian Worker" unpublished paper.