National Commission on Labour (1967)||
21.29 For the efficient and effective functioning of employers' organisations, an essential requirement is the existence of active communication, from the association to its constituents and vice versa. It is through such communication that the association can represent the views of its members and facilitate implementation of the commitments it makes. As at present, the procedure seems to be to exchange views through annual and special meetings, occasional discussions and through seminars devoted to specific subjects, in all of which the constituents are expected to participate. Federations also issue instructions, circulars, research papers, annual reports and directives, where necessary, to their constituents. Even with these arrangements, difficulties have arisen when the constituents are fairly dispersed. In the evidence before us, some employers have pointed out that there is scope for improvement in the arrangements for exchange of views between the central organisations and their constituents on a continuing basis. We have heard statements from industry/ local organisations that the central organisations have sometimes made commitments at the tripartite committees on issues of vital economic consequence without adequate prior deliberations. Such grievances could be exaggerated. With the best of intentions, it will be difficult for apex organisations to satisfy all members, each having its own peculiar problems. Communication between an employers' organisation and organisations of workers to discuss common problems is rarer still. This does not mean that problems do not exist; rather there is reluctance on the part of both to get together.
21.30 The inadequacy of the present system of communication is perhaps reflected in non-implementation and non-acceptance of obligations under certain agreements accepted by the organisations. In the midst of this general complaint, it is worth mentioning that some employers' organisations like the IJMA, the Indian Sugar Mills' Association, the Bombay Millowners' Association, the Ahmedabad Millowners' Association and the United Planters' Association of Southern India (UPASI) have worked out arrangements which give adequate satisfaction to their respective constituents in this regard. Apart from the conviction that they have about the usefulness of constant and continuing exchange of views, easy accessibility to members is the main reason for the success achieved by these associations.
21.31 We have been told that the system of voting and representation adopted by the Central federations tends to favour the bigger industrialists and employers, and this has created difficulties in proper and effective representation of medium-sized units which form the backbone of the country's industrial structure. Inadequate consultation with such units is reported to be the cause of ineffective implementation of their obligations by employers. We have found during the course of our inquiry that such grievances can be more psychological than real. It does not mean that if prior consultation had taken place, the obligations could have been less onerous on employers. Difficulties in implementing tripartite conclusions/decisions have sometimes arisen at the establishment/plant level because of difference in interpretation of such conclusions/decisions or due to the special circumstances prevailing at the unit level. In the implementation of agreements, persuasion is the only instrument which the employers' organisations can adopt. It is obvious that in such matters other sanctions cannot work. The causes for non-implementation of agreements are many
and varied; ineffective and inadequate communication is only one of them. What has been said about national organisations is equally valid in case of industry/area-wise associations. Employers' organisations should build up their internal consultation system in such a manner that all matters, which have far-reaching impact on members, are scrutinised by the constituents prior to any decisions that might be taken at the national level,