Labour Investigation Committee (1946)||
In spite of the comprehensive enquiries made by the Royal Commission. on Labour and a few Committees appointed by the Provincial Governments large lacunae have remained in regard to information on labour conditions in several industries in India. Broadly speaking, the method of direct enquiry on the spot has not been adopted on sufficiently wide scale so as to cover the entire industrial structure. Moreover, certain industries, like cotton textiles and coal mining, have received greater attention than others, but even in regard to these, comprehensive information on an ail-India basis has not been available. With a view to making up this deficiency and bringing the available information up to date, the Committee decided that ad hoc surveys should be carried out in various industries so as to secure a complete picture of labour conditions prevailing in each. The following industries were selected for the purpose:—
A. MINING: (i) Coal. (2) Manganese. (3) Gold. (4) Mica. (5) Iron Ore. (6) Salt.
B. PLANTATIONS: (7) Tea. (8) Coffee. (9) Rubber.
C. FACTORY INDUSTRIES: (10) Cotton. (11) Jute. (12) Silk. (13) Woollen. (14) Mineral Oil. (15) Dockyard. (16) Engineering and minerals and Metals. (17) Cement. (18) Matches. ,(19) Paper. (20) Carpet Weaving. (21) Coir Matting. (22) Tanneries and Leather Goods Manufacture. (23) Potteries. (24) Printing Presses. (25) Glass. (26) Chemical and Pharmaceutical works. (27) Shellac. (28) Bidi making. Cigar and Cigarettes. (29) Mica Splitting. (30) Sugar. (31) Cotton Ginning and Baling. (32) Rice Mills.
D. TRANSPORT: (33} Transport Services (Tramways and Buses). (34) Non-gazetted Railway Staff.
E. OTHER TYPES OF LABOUR: (35) Port Labour. (36) Municipal Labour. (37) Central P. W. D. (38) Rickshaw Pullers.
In dealing with the ad hoc survey works, several courses were open to the Committee:—(i) that the Committee, as a whole, might study each industry, (ii) that the surveys might be distributed region-wise and each Member put in charge of a region, and (iii) that each Member might be entrusted with a few surveys throughout India. With a view to speedy and efficient work, the third course was adopted. This departure from the usual procedure of the Committee as a whole dealing with the work was necessary in view of the immensity of the task and the necessity of maintaining an all-India perspective. Moreover, it was felt that this procedure would enable Members to make a specialised study of labour conditions in individual industries in different parts of the country. It was also felt that the peculiar problems of industrial labour had more on industry-wise than a region-wise dispersion and that the procedure would be helpful to any programme of future legislation which has to take into consideration the diversified conditions of - each industry.