Labour Investigation Committee (1946)||
The bulk of workers employed in the Bidi and Cigar industries are rollers who are paid on a piece basis. Only packing, labelling and store work are paid at time rates, although labelling in many centres is also paid by the piece. Children employed in the Bidi and Cigar industries are generally paid on a daily basis. Such children get on an average 4 to 6 annas a day in Bengal and South India, white they get 3 to 4 annas in the C. P. The piece rate for making 1,000 bidis varies from centre to centre and sometimes from factory to factory in the same centre. In the Central Provinces, it varies from as. 13 to Re. 1; in South India, from Rs. 1-2-0 to Rs. 1-4-0 ; in Bombay Province, from as. 12 to Rs. 1-4-0 ; and in Bengal from Rs. 1-1-o to Rs. 1-14-0. Women employed in the factories are generally paid at the same rates as men but in the case of home workers the rate is lower by as. 2 in the Central Provinces, Bombay and Mysore by as. 4 in Bengal and by as. 8 to as. 10 in the Madras Province. As compared to 1939, the rates for bidi making have gone up by about 100 per cent. The rates of wages for making 1,000 cigars vary from Rs. 1-4-0 for the inferior varieties to Rs. 5 or Rs. 6 for the superior cigars. In the Cigarette industry, wages are paid generally on a time basis, the average daily rate being as. 12 to Re. 1 although skilled workers such as machine operators receive from Rs. 3 to Rs. 3-12-0 per day. In the Bidi making industry, there are various kinds of deductions made from the workers' wages. These are particularly common in the Central Provinces especially in the Bandara District and in South India. Bidi workers do not get any dearness allowance or bonus. Cigar workers in South India, however, are generally paid dearness allowance at the rate of as. 5 in the rupee of wages earned while some cigar factories give bonus as well. All the cigarette factories give dearness allowance and bonuses. In the Central Provinces, the average daily production of bidis per worker is about 800 and his earnings for the month vary from Rs. 13-10-0 to about Rs. 21. In South India the monthly average earnings of bidi workers came to Rs. 18-4-0 in Madras, Rs. 21 in Mangalore and Rs. 29-3-0 in Tinnevelly. In Bombay, on an average, the earnings of men are between Rs. 30 and Rs. 40 and of women between Rs. 16 and Rs.30. The average earnings of cigar makers in South India are from Rs. 27-12-0 to Rs. 36-13-0.