Labour Investigation Committee (1946)||
A. Magnitude of Employment
1. What is the number of registered Rickshaws in ......................
How many of these are public Vehicles? How many of these are private Vehicles?
2. What is the number of licensed Rickshaw pullers?
3. Are there any rules relating to Rickshaw pullers prescribed by the Municipality? If so, please give details.
B. Ownership of Rickshaws
4. What is the number of public rickshaws owned by pullers?
5 What is the number of public rickshaws owned by Chaudhris and hired out to pullers?
6. What is the purchase price of a rickshaw?
7. What is the average life of a rickshaw?
8. What are the difficulties in the way of ownership of rickshaws by pullers?
9. Is the Municipal ownership of rickshaws a practicable proposition?
10. What are the advantages of the ownership of rickshaws by Chaudhris?
11. Are rickshaw stands auctioned or leased by the Municipality? If so,. state the amount of the money realised from this source.
C. Conditions of Employment and Hire
12. Is there any agreement, written or conventional, between Chaudhris and pullers regarding the terms and period of hire of Vehicles or any other conditions of employment?
13. To what extent are the terms of such agreement prescribed or enforced by the Municipal authorities?
14. Is there any other intermediary between Chaudhris and pullers? If so, what are his functions and earnings?
15. Do teams of pullers hire out rickshaws on their own collective responsibility, directly from chaudhris or do the chaudhris engage their own teams directly or through intermediaries? (For Simla only.)
16. Is the constitution of teams of pullers fixed or does it vary from time to time? (For Simla only.)
17. Are the liabilities of pullers to chaudhris and others, individual or collective? (For Simla only.)
18. Are pullers required to deposit any security before they are given charge of rickshaws? If so, indicate the source from which pullers obtain the amount required?
D. Earnings and Hours
19. What are the rates of Rickshaw hire for the public?
20. What is the basis of payment by pullers to Chaudhris and intermediaries, if any?
21. What is the proportion of hourly earnings of pullers claimed by owners of Vehicles?
22. What are the checks enforced by Chaudhris on the pullers earnings to determine their own shares?
23. What are the abuses of such a system of sharing of earnings?
24. Are payments by pullers to chaudhris etc., made daily? How are accounts maintained?
25. How do pullers share their earnings among themselves? (For Simla only.)
26. What are the approximate total daily or monthly earnings (including tips) per puller?
27. Who is responsible for the repair and upkeep of rickshaws hired out by pullers?
28. Are there any kinds of repairs, e.g., punctures which are a liability of pullers?
29. In case of accidents involving damage to Vehicles, are the pullers responsible? If so, to what extent?
30. Who supplies uniforms? Is the wearing of uniforms compulsory? Who pays for their washing and replacement?
31. What is the license fee for pullers and who pays it?
32. What is the registration fee for rickshaws and who pays it?
33. What is the number of hours worked by pullers daily?
34. For how many months in the year do pullers works ?
35. Is there any law regarding the attachment of pullers' •earnings and rickshaws for debt etc,?
36. Where do pullers live?
Is accommodation provided for them by Municipality or by Government? If so describe—
(a) The type of accommodation,
(b) Density of occupation,
(f) Water and lighting,
(g) Arrangements for cooking, etc.
F. Age and Health
37. What is the range of ages in which pulling is practicable?
38. Are there any rules regarding age-limits for pullers?
If not, is it desirable that there should be any such rules? If so, please indicate their contents.
39. Are pullers medically examined before being licensed?
40. Is it desirable that they should be so examined?
41. What are the common maladies or diseases suffered by pullers?
42. Are any medical facilities available to pullers?
43. What is the average expectation of life of a puller?
44. What is the occupation of pullers during the off season?
45. What is their usual domicile?
46. Does any indebtedness exist among pullers? If so, what are their sources of borrowings?
47. What factors lead them into indebtedness and what 4s the rate of interest payable by them?
Questionnaire for Tramways and Bus Transport Service to be filled up by Supervisors
Name of Concern............,
Type of Concern..............
Question 1.—State the changes which have taken place in the basic wage rates, both time and piece (as distinct from allowances, etc.) since August 1939.
Question 2.—Describe the present system of shifts or relays for different categories of workers. What changes have taken place in the number of working hours per shift/relay since August 1939?
In bus transport concerns in which the shift system does not prevail state the average number of hours worked by employees on running duties and the usual 'spreadover' of working hours.
Question 3.—A. What is the wage period?
B. What is the period elapsing between the end of the wage period and the date of payment of wages and allowances?
Question 4.—A. Are employees allowed any holidays with pay?
B. What are the leave privileges allowed to employees including privileges regarding weekly leave?
Question 5.—Do wages differ according to the size or type of vehicle
in charge of drivers and conductors or according to routes covered by them? If so, please give details.
Question 6.—A. Are any concessions granted to the employees such as provision of:—
(a) Cheap grain, Canteen or cloth shops.
(b) Housing—free or at concession rates.
(c) Medical facilities.
(d) Free or cheap supply of light and water,
(e) Free or cheap supply of fuel.
(f) Free passes for travelling in their employer's vehicles.
(g) Uniforms. (h) Others.
B. To what extent are the above concessions availed of?
(a) Is there a Provident Fund for employees?
(b) Is it registered?
(c) Is it voluntary or compulsory?
(d) When was it started?
(e) Is it opened to all the employees permanent and temporary or only to some?
Give details such as:—
(a) Worker's contribution.
(b) Employer's contribution.
(c) Conditions to which claims of employees on employer's contributions are subject.
(d) Rate of interest paid.
(e) Rules relating to advances from the fund and repayment of such advances.
(f) What is total membership of the fund at present?
(g) What is the amount of the fund outstanding at present?
Question 8.—Are employees paid bonuses or gratuities such as:—
A. (a) Attendance bonus.
(b) Annual profit bonus.
(c) War bonus.
(d) Annual gratuity.
(e) Bonus for 'accident free' driving.
B. How many get it and at what rate?
C. What are the conditions for the payment of the above bonuses?
Question 9.—Are employees given any gratuity, pension or any benefits at the time of retirement? Give details regarding—
(a) Gratuity at the time of retirement.
(b) Pension after retirement.
(c) Other benefits.
Question 10.—Please give details about the various allowances granted since the outbreak of the war.
(a) Dearness allowance.
Question 11.—Please give details regarding the various deductions made from wages.
Question 12.—Please supply information regarding the. scale of pay and allowances (including rates of increment) for different categories of the staff.
LABOUR INVESTIGATION COMMITTEE
(GOVERNMENT OF INDIA)
Supplementary Questionnaire on Plantations
N.B. - The statistics to be given under this section should relate to
the latest year for which they are available.
I. What is the total number of labourers including their dependants living in your estate? Please classify the families as follows:—
Adult Children Adult Children
|M W. M. W.|
|(a) No. of families consisting of 1 member.|
|(b) No. of families consisting of 2 members.|
|(c) No. of families consisting of 3 members.|
|(d) No. of families consisting of members.|
|(e) No. of families Consisting of 6 members.|
|(f) No. of families consisting of more than 6 members.|
2. Please give the total number of workers (men, women and children separately) employed on your estate during the pre-war month (August 1939) and during any recent month for which information may be available.
3. If possible, please give the age composition of your workers in the following form:
Those under 15,
Those between 15 and 55,
Those above 55,
If this is not possible, please give at least the percentage of workers above 55 to the total labour force.
4. What are the principal sources form which the labour force is drawn for work on your estate? Please supply figures by provinces, states or districts as may be possible.
5. What is the total number of settled labourers borne on your register and what is the average number employed daily? (Please give the number of men, women and children separately as well as the figure of each category for each month and for the year as well.) What is the average daily number of casual or outside (bustee or faltu) labourers employed during the year and during each month? What proportion of the settled labourers or casual labourers belongs to the class of general agricultural labourers in the district?
6. Is a labourer free to seek employment in any estate he likes? Is there any agreement or understanding among employers not to entice labour from another estate or employ a labourer from another estate without the approval of the latter estate?
7. Are outsiders required to take permission of the manager before they can enter and visit the lines? Is any meeting of labourers allowed without permission?
8. Describe the machinery and methods of recruitment of plantation labour. In particular, state whether the recruitment is by families and whether the Saroars or Kanganis work as the employers' agent or as independent professional recruiters. What are the terms of the agreement of recruitment? Please forward a copy of the agreement if possible.
9. Is there a system of giving pre-employment advances to labour and, if so, what is the average amount advanced per worker or per family? How are these advances given and recovered? Are accounts properly kept and is each worker supplied with a copy of his account in his own language? What is the period of settlement of such accounts and what interest if any, is charged?
10. Are the workers in Assam plantations cognisant of their rights under the Tea Districts Emigrant Labour Act, 1932, especially with regard to their right of repatriation? If not, what steps have been taken to make them aware of their rights?
11. Have any strikes taken place on your estate? If so, please give full details stating the dates of the strikes and the number of workers involved. What were the issues raised and how far were they met in subsequent settlements? What was the machinery employed for settlement?
12. To what extent and in what respects have labour conditions on your plantations improved or worsened in recent years, especially since the Royal Commission on Labour reported in 1931?
13. Express your views on the suitability of a tripartite machinery in each Province or State concerned for dealing with the various problems of plantation labour, such as, housing, emigration, welfare activities, education, health, etc.
14. What machinery would you suggest for periodical inspection of labour condition on plantations?
15. Are the provisions of the Tea Districts Emigrant Labour Act and Rules made there under being strictly enforced? If not, please state the extent to which evasion or violation is taking place in respect of any provisions and the methods or means of such evasion or violation.
16. In areas other than the Assam Tea Districts, what machinery has been set up to safeguard the interests of workers, especially in regard to recruitment and repatriation?
17. (a) Have you any suggestions to make for improving or expanding the scope of the Tea Districts Emigrant Labour Act or. its administrative machinery?
(b) Are you in favour of extending the Act to areas not at present covered by it? If so, please- give reasons.
F.N. 33—2 Lab. 56.
(Please give information in respect of the same year as in Section I, if possible.)
1. On how many days in the week do the labourers work and is a weekly holiday observed? Is there any involuntary employment? Are there any paid holidays?
2. What are the normal hours of work— (a) in field, (b) in factory?
3. (i) Are wages of non-factory labour paid on the basis of—(a) piece rate, or (b) at daily rates?
(ii) If (b), what are the minimum hours for a full day and how is overtime paid?
(iii) If labour is paid at a piece rate (or hazira) what is the unit of work for a full hazira?
(iv) If labourers are paid at daily rates, what are the wages of different kinds of labourers and for overtime?
(v) What is the piece rate or hazira rate? Is work in excess of hazira freely allowed?
(vi) What is your total wage bill during the year and how much of it was regular earning and how much ticca or overtime? Please give this information month by month and state the total number of settled labourers on your books and the average number daily employed, month by month, (men, women, and children should be shown separately).
(vii) What is the best period for earning ticca or overtime? How is plucking paid? Is it paid on the hazira basis?
4. On what basis are the basic wages (hazira or daily rate or any other piece rate) fixed? Please state this basic rate each year during 1930—1940 or. any other period of 10 years and the average price of common rice in your locality during these years. Is there any agreement about wages among employers and is any employer free to change the wage rates? What steps are taken to increase wages if the cost of living rises? If wages are not increased is any dearness allowance given or are food-stuffs supplied at a concession rate? If so, what has been the annual expenditure on dearness allowance or loss due to the supply of foodstuffs at a concession rate during the last 10 years? What, are the other concessions, in money or in kind, given? Please state under what conditions these concessions are given and what is the amount spent each year during the last 5 years for different concessions and how many persons received the concessions? Please evaluate concessions in kind in term of money and state why they should not be abolished in lieu of a consolidated wage.
5. If the basic rate or hazira has not been changed recently, please explain the circumstances under which this was fixed. Is any garden in your locality paying a higher rate? Please name the garden or gardens and justify the difference.
6. What is the wage period on your plantation? What is the interval usually elapsing between the date on which wages become due and are actually paid? Is there any system of settling, the account at the end of the season and, if so, please state why it should not be discontinued? Are any deductions made from wages for fine or otherwise and is the labourer informed of such deductions?
7 How is the leaf weighed on. tea plantation? and how are the accounts kept? Is the weighing machine tested at regular intervals? If so, by whom? Are any deductions made for dampness while weighing the leaf and, if so, on what basis?
8. How do earnings on plantations compare with those of agriculture workers in neighbouring areas?
9. Do labourers take leave when they absent themselves from work (on grounds other than sickness)? Are labourers informed by the employer when work cannot be offered to them?
10. What is the total amount of (a) Estate land, and (b) other lands cultivated by the settled labourers r How many families possess land and what is the approximate value of the produce per acre? What rent is charged by the estate and is a labourer liable to vacate the land on demand by the estate? How is selection of labourers for land made?
11. Are workers encouraged to keep cattle on the plantations? If so, are suitable cattle sheds and pasture ground provided? Is any pasturage charge levied?
12. Are you in favour of the establishment of Wage Boards in different plantation areas? Give reasons for your views.
13. Are you in favour of applying the Payment of Wages Act and some provisions of the Factories Act (e.g; hours of work, etc.) to the non-factory labour on plantations? If not, please state why?
I. Has any scheme for providing quarters of an improved type to labourer been adopted by your estate? If so please explain the scheme briefly and state how many such quarters have been put up in each year since the inception of the scheme and at what expenditure in each year? If no quarters of an improved type have been built or only a small number has been built, please state why no progress has been made.
2. (a) What are the types of quarters in which labourers are housed on the estate? Please supply information on the following points:-
(a) Type of quarters.
(b) No. of families living in such quarters.
(c) Total population of living in such quarters.
(i) Kucha barracks
(ii) Pucca barracks
(iii) Single and detached quarters (Kucha)
(iv) Single and detached quarters
(N.B.—Kucha means earthen-floor and mud or bamboo walls. Pucca means paved or cemented floor.)
What is the floor area of a single quarter and how many persons live in one quarter on an average?
How many rooms are allotted, on an average, to each family in barrack houses? What is the area of each room, on an average,
and the size of a family on an average, living in such barracks? Is a kitchen attached to each living room?
(b) Are windows provided in each living room? If so, please give details.
(i) What is the height of the plinth of the houses? (ii) Is a paved yard provided in front of the lines?
(iii) Are concrete drains provided in front of the lines and, if so, of what type?
(iv) Is a bath room attached to each living room?
If there are common bath rooms, is separate provision made for male and female labour?
3. What rent is charged from labourers for their quarters and who pays for repairs? Please state how much the estate has spent each year during the last 10 years on housing on—
(i) new construction, and (ii) repairs.
Please also state the amount of rent, if any realised in each year during these
4. How many latrines have been provided for the labourers quarters and of what type, e.g., ordinary, bore-hole, "ftush", etc.? To what extent are they used? What arrangements are made for cleaning the latrines? What is the proportion of the number of latrines to the number of living rooms?
IV.—HEALTH AND SANITATION
1. What are your birth and death figures in recent years? (Please give the figures separately for each year and show the ratios of births and deaths per 1, 000 of the population.)
Are births and deaths promptly recorded?
2. Is there any dispensary on the estate and is there a qualified doctor constantly available? If not, what arrangements have been made for the treatment of sick labourers? Are there any hospital facilities on the estate? If not, what is done with such cases?
3. Is treatment free to labourers and their dependants? Is any fee charged for such treatment?
4. Is any allowance paid to a labourer or a dependant if he is sick? If so, please state the rate of such allowance and the conditions under which it is paid. Please also state the total expenditure incurred every year by the estate on this account during the last 5 years.
5. (i) Is there any maternity clinic or any special arrangements for ante-and post-natal cases? Is any maternity benefit paid? If so, please give details.
(ii) Do confinements generally take place in
(a) the hospital or
(b) the lines?
What payment, if any, is made to the parents at child birth at (a) or (b) above?
(iii) For how many weeks before, and after, confinement, respectively is free food issued to the mother?
(iv) Is any special diet given to the mother and infant in addition to (iii) above? If so, please give details.
(v) Is any free clothing issued to the infant?
6. Is there any provision for child welfare or periodical medical examination of children and adults? Please give particulars.
7. What arrangements are made for looking after children when mothers are engaged in work? Are any creches maintained by the estate?
8. Please give the following information for each year for as many years as possible, showing the number of cases treated in the estate dispensary and hospital:—
|Total average population||Cases of minor ailments||Cases of major ailments||Total No. of cases treated||No. of cases of malaria.|
N.B.—Minor ailments include such complaints as skin diseases, burns sores, bowel complaints, etc.
9. Please state the amount spent annually by the estate during the last 5 years for the provision of medical relief and sanitation. (This expenditure should not include expenditure on anti-malarial measures, provision of pure drinking water, etc.)
10. Has any anti-malarial scheme been started on the estate? If so, please explain briefly the measures taken. Please state the annual expenditure on such measures during recent years. What has been the effect of such a scheme on the general health of labourers?
11. What provision has been made for supplying pure drinking water? Is the water supply adequate and easily available?
12. Do you issue a free meal daily to all non-working children? If so, please give details.
1. Have any measures been adopted for the welfare of labourers and their dependants? If so, please explain briefly the scope of such work and the expenditure incurred by the estate on such work.
2. Are there any schools for adults? If so, when were they started and what is the average daily attendance.
3. Are there any schools for children? What is the contribution of the estate to such schools? Are such schools under the Education Department or under the estate? What is the number of children taught in these schools and what is the average daily attendance? What is the proportion of students to the total number of children of school going age? Is education free? Will attendance improve if children below 12 years are not employed by the estate?
4. What are the recreations of labourers? Are cinema shows or music parties provided at the expense of the estate? Do labourers make any contribution to such shows? How much has the estate spent for this purpose in recent years?
5. Is there much drinking among labourers? If so, what steps do you propose for the eradication of this evil?
6. Have your workers joined any trade union and, if so, what is their number? Is there any desire for combination among your labourers?
7. What arrangements exist in your estate for ensuring adequate and regular supplies of provisions to your workers?