Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
There are several objections to such a system from the point of view of labour. In the first place, the intervals bear no necessary relation to meal times and, where different members of a family work in
different departments of the mills, as is frequently the case, it is most unlikely that they will be able to have their meals together. In the second place, supervision becomes extremely difficult and the Chief Inspector of Factories gave evidence of long series of infringements in these mills. It is stated that an appreciable number of the workers shown in the registers have no existence in fact. Non-existent workers are credited with pay which is divided between the clerks, the jobbers and the men who do the extra work. The proportion of such " dummies " was estimated by competent witnesses at 7 1/2 or 10 per cent of the total. Where this is true, the daily hours are clearly being lengthened beyond the legal limit. This abuse reaches its height in the case of children and the certifying surgeons agree that " the systems of shifts in multiple-shift jute mills afford every opportunity for employment beyond legal limits and in some mills children are actually working as many as 11 or 12 hours a day ". It is only fair to add that the certifying surgeons report that the overworking of children also occurs in single-shift mills. But in such mills it appears to take the form of employment in more than one mill and we agree with the Bengal Government that " the regulation of child labour is easier from the point of view of both the manager and the factory inspector ".