Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
The group which we have designated " Engineering and Metals " comprises a number of factories of different types. The most important class consists of the railway workshops, which number 145 and employ 136, 000 persons. New rolling stock is made in a number of the principal workshops, but the bulk of the work consists of the maintenance and repair of the running stock. Hitherto the bigger shops have generally been located in or near the centres of provinces, e.g., at Moghalpura near Lahore, Lillooah near Calcutta, Matunga and Parel in Bombay Island, Perambur near Madras, and Lucknow. But some, such as Khargpur and Kanchrapara, are in towns which depend almost entirely upon them, and the recently built shops at Trichinopoly (Golden Rock) and Dohad are away from other industries. About half the workshops arc managed by the Stat e, which is thus responsible for over 78, 000 railway workshop employees. Apart from these, there are a number of general engineering shops of some importance, particularly in the Calcutta neighbourhood. Electrical engineering and generating works are steadily expanding. Other engineering shops are maintained for the upkeep of tramways, telegraphs, motor transport and shipping. Of establishments dealing with metals, by far the most important is the Tata Iron and Steel Company's works at Jamshedpur, in the Singhbhum district of Bihar and Orissa, about 200 miles west of Calcutta. This was established as recently as 1907 on a site practically uninhabited before that date and far from any town of importance. It has now a large, complex and well-equipped plant, and employs about 28, 000 persons, of whom about two-thirds work in the main factory. In association with several smaller factories of an allied character, it has built up a township of 100, 000 inhabitants. Other metal works of some importance are maintained by the Army Department and include the Metal and Steel 1 Factory and the Rifle Factory at Ishapore, north of Calcutta; and the re is one large iron and steel works in the Bengal coalfield. The manufacture of the ubiquitous kerosene tin employs an increasing number of persons in, or near, the three Presidency towns, and iron foundries, generally on a small scale, are fairly widely distributed. The other metal-working factories are of a very miscellaneous, kind and few of them employ substantial numbers of workers.