Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
While the mica mines resemble the manganese mines in being situated in rural surroundings, they differ in that there are no large units and that about two-thirds of the workers are employed underground. The mines are principally in the Hazaribagh and Gaya districts of Bihar and the Nellore district of Madras. The Bihar mines are largely worked from shafts, one to each working place, none of them of any great depth and mostly with the simplest hand-worked winding gear. Many of them are buried in the jungle and by no means easy of access.
They are worked by part-time agricultural workers between crops and are often closed during the rains. The Madras mines include a number of open pits in which quarrying is done by unskilled and often casual workers drawn from the neighboring villages. From the labour point of view, mica mining hardly falls within the category of organised industry as the workers are not wholly or even primarily dependent on the industry. One large mica firm maintains its own hospital, and a number of firms contribute towards a Government dispensary and hospital. The small scale of nearly all the mines makes the provision of adequate medical facilities difficult. But many of the mines are situated at considerable distances from the nearest hospital or dispensary, and an extension of medical facilities, which might be secured by co-operation between employers, is necessary.