Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
The main coalfields lie in or adjacent to areas chiefly inhabited by aboriginal tribes. From these tribes the labour force was first drawn and they still supply the bulk of the workers. A certain proportion of the labour force, consisting mainly of aboriginals, is permanently settled within the coalfields. Many of them were attracted by the grant of land for cultivation, and they live on the colliery property, devoting a part of their time to cultivation. The proportion so settled is higher in the Raniganj than in the Jharia field. Other aboriginal workers live at varying distances from the coalfields. Some inhabit villages in the neighbourhood and walk into the coalfields to live and work there for varying periods. Thus some return to their villages at least once a week, whilst others return for comparatively long periods when agricultural work is plentiful. Wherever their permanent home may lie, nearly all the aboriginal workers are also agriculturalists and spend a considerable part of their working hours in every year in agriculture. The non-aboriginal workers form an increasing minority of the labour force. They are drawn mainly from Bihar, the north-east of the Central Provinces and the east of the United Provinces and are known as C. P.1 miners. Possessed of greater adaptability than the aboriginals, they are accustomed to the use of explosives, can be employed on coal-cutting machines. and are more assiduous and regular workers. The introduction of more modem methods of mining and the tendency to more systematisation of working hours give this type of worker an increasing advantage over aboriginal labour. While nearly all these men look to other parts of India as their " home " and have some connection with agricultural land there, they are not usually agriculturalists in the same sense as the aboriginals. They approximate more nearly to perennial factory workers and may properly be regarded as miners dependent on mining for their livelihood.