Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
The factories we have been considering work on not more than 6 days of the week. There is, however, a considerable number of factories in which, on account of the necessity of working the processes continuously, permission is granted to work on every day of the week. In most cases this permission is accompanied by a condition that the workers should receive a holiday once a fortnight. The great majority of these factories work on a system of 8 hour shifts, three shifts of workers being employed. This is true of a large number of workers employed in iron and steel works, in the larger sugar factories, in coke factories, and in some less important classes. Similar hours are also worked in a number of factories which meet the essential daily needs of the public, such as electric generating stations, water works and gas works. With a fortnightly holiday, the hours of workers employed on the 8 hour shifts come to 56 and 48 in alternate weeks, giving an average of 52 hours. Thus in the iron. and steel works at Jamshedpur, some workers have a 48 hour week and the actual average number of hours, including overtime, is reported as about 51 or 52. In some other continuous process factories, the average is probably nearer 56. As a rule, flour mills work continuously throughout the week, but in this industry there are generally only two shifts of 12 hours each, the workers, in theory or in fact, receiving intervals amounting to 2 hours throughout the shift.