Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
Reference has already been made to the casual nature of employment in docks and the payment of wages through foremen, maistries, tindals, or mukkadams. The daily earnings are highest in Rangoon. As a result of the recent strike, the daily rate was raised from Rs. 1-8-0 to Rs. 1-12-0, but this increase was accompanied by a reduction in employment among Indian dock labourers who, till then, were exclusively employed in loading and unloading ships Most of them now find it impossible to secure employment for more than half the number 01 days in the month. We deal elsewhere with this and other features of the employment of Indian labour in Rangoon. In Bombay the daily wages of a dock labourer are said to vary from As. 14 to Rs. 1-8-0, while in Karachi we were informed by a firm of stevedores that the rate was Rs. 1-2-0 for men and As. 13 for women.
Here the large volume of unemployment probably results in a low scale of monthly earnings, but in Bombay, according to an estimate made by the Port Trust, the average monthly earnings, including payment for overtime, of a dock labourer in the employ of the Trust is about Rs. 32. This. however, must not be taken as covering the majority of the men employed in the docks. In Calcatta the average monthly earnings of stevedore labour are estimated to be about Rs. 20.