Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
In pre-war days, wages were fixed in accordance with the rates prevailing in other industries. In recent years, however, rates have been revised to meet changed conditions in the cost of living and improved standards of comfort, and, although there are differences of opinion on this subject, it may be accepted that the law of supply and demand has ceased to be the sole determining factor. Except in one or two cases, service agreements contain no reference to rates of wages, although schedules of rates are in existence on all railways. There is no uniformity of practice on the various railways or even in similar departments of the same railway. Pay generally is fixed on an incremental basis so as to admit of the grant of increases as an employee's service and age increase. Certain classes are divided into grades, and promotion from one grade to another depends on the occurrence of a vacancy in the higher grade and on the suitability of the men for such promotion. As a rule the initial pay given is the minimum pay of the scale, although exceptions are frequently made, for example in the case of labourers and of men recruited for some workshops who, after trade tests, have their initial pay fixed according to skill. Complaints are made that there are too many grades, that men are Mocked for years in lower grades until vacancies occur in the higher, and that the wages of railway workers are not based on the principle of a living wage.