National Commission on Labour (1967)||
The contribution of our country to the thinking on international labour, problems has had a history long before Independence. Indian workers had settled down in many countries in South East Asia, and had reached as far as Fiji Islands in the east. In the west, emigrants from Our country settled in West Asia, Africa and far beyond in the West Indies. Indians played a useful role in the social and economic life in the countries, which sustained them in the days when labour was required for development. Such success as they achieved was watched with interest in our country then, as much as their worries highlighted by our leaders with the effectiveness which a dependent nation could command. Partly because of this direct interest and partly because of the desire in the country to have a better understanding of labour problems elsewhere for the benefit of the working class in the country, leadership in Government and among workers and employers showed keenness to understand international labour problems.
32.1 At the end of the First World War India, though a dependent country, was given a place in the Peace Conference and in the League, of Nations which was established as a forum for international understanding. The Peace Conference led to the creation, in 1919, of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), an event of considerable significance to labour in all lands. The main aims of the organisation were : (i) to remove injustice, hardship and privation of large masses of toiling people all over the world ; and (ii) to improve their living and working conditions and thus establish universal and lasting peace based upon social justice. As a signatory to the Treaty of Versailles and as a member of the League of Nations, India was automatically admitted to the ILO, at the time of its inception in 1919. During the first two years of her membership, India remained an ordinary member of the Governing Body. Persistent efforts by the delegates of our country in the International Labour Conferences, aided by the support of friendly nations, secured for India, in the third year of its membership, one of the non-elective Government seats on the Governing Body of the ILO as a country of industrial importance. The country has continued to enjoy this status since.
32.2 With the outbreak of the Second World War, the League of Nations became defunct. The ILO and all that it stood for received a rude shock and there was a lull in its activities. The deep conviction the world over that the way to peace still lay through social justice made the ILO hold a special session of the International Labour Conference at Philadelphia (June 1944) to consider the programmes and policies to be pursued by it when peace arrives. The aims and purposes of the ILO were redefined in the form of a Declaration, the Declaration of Philadelphia, which was later made part of the ILO Constitution. After the creation of the new world body, the United Nations, in October, 1945, the ILO was given the status of a Specialised Agency and the Agreement in this regard came into effect in 1946.
32.3 Towards the end of the Second World War, when the ILO was returning to full operations, the need was felt for the formation of a series of expert bodies for the purpose of considering the special problems of major industries. Accordingly 8 Industrial Committees and 2 analogous bodies were set up between 1945 and 1948. All the Industrial Committees are tripartite in character and are composed of two representatives each of Governments, employers and workers from every member-country represented on these Committees. Our country is at present a member of nine out of a total of ten such bodies.
32.4 The ILO has three Regional Advisory Committees functioning at present, the Asian Advisory Committee (since 1950), the African Advisory Committee (since 1959) and the Inter-American Advisory Committee (since 1965). Also a number of specialised bodies function under the general authority of the Governing Body. Some of them are standing expert bodies like the Committee of Experts on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations, Committee of Social Security Experts, Permanent Agricultural Committee and Joint Maritime Commission. Others are ad hoc bodies which meet as and when found necessary to consider specific problems. ILO has in addition Panels of Consultants on : (i) problems of women workers ; (ii) problems of young workers ; (iii) co-operation ; (iv) indigenous and tribal
population ; (v) workers' education and recreation.
32.5 Finally, there are committees linking the ILO with other branches of the United Nations and its Specialised Agencies. On problems of common concern to more than one agency, there are arrangements for inter-agency consultations which are expected to avoid duplication of effort and bring about the much needed coordination.
32.6 Today the ILO stands as one of the specialised agencies of the United Nations with a longer history than any of its sister organisations. This in itself a proof of the good work done by the organisation in the fold of promo-. ting the dignity and welfare of man through international cooperation. This was made possible by the keen interest evinced by member-countries in its work and by the efficient staff support provided by the International Labour Office which is one of the operative arms of the organisation. The membership of the organisation has now reached 118. We consider it a happy coincidence that at the time we write our report, the ILO is celebrating its fiftieth anniversary.
32.7: The ILO is a tripartite organisation consisting of representatives of Government, employers and workers of the member-countries. There is parity of representation as between Government and non-Government groups and also between employers' and workers' groups. The structure of the organisation has helped in welding together employers and workers in different countries into independent organisations. In our country, the first national federation of workers, viz., the All India Trade Union Congress, was born within one year of the setting up of the ILO to represent our workers at the International Labour Conference. Since Independence, the INTUC has taken its place as the most representative organisation of Indian workers. In the early days. employers had their organisations too, but for activities not necessarily connected with labour. The requirements of representation on the ILO brought them closer. Of late, the Council of Indian Employers has been helping Government in choosing the employers' delegation. For a long time now the representatives of employers and workers in our country have secured, through their respective constituencies, elective posts on the Governing Body of the ILO.
32.8 The ILO operates through its Governing Body, the Office and the International Labour Conference which meets once a year to review the international labour scene. The Annual Conference sets normative standards on important matters such as regulation of hours of work and weekly rest in industry, equal remuneration for equal work, abolition of forced labour and discrimination in employment, protection of workmen against sickness, disease and work-injury, regulation of minimum wages, prohibition of night work for women and young persona, recognition of the principle of freedom of association, organisation of vocational and technical education, and many areas concerning labour-management relations. The standards are evolved after a full debate in the Conference with adequate time given to the three wings of the tripartite for appropriate consultation. Usually the standards are accepted after discussions in the Conference over two successive years. Agreed standards on a specified subject are then converted into an international instrument, a 'Convention' or a 'Recommendation', each having a different degree of compulsion. A 'Convention' is binding on the Member-State which ratifies it ; a ' Recommendation' is intended as a guideline for national action. So far, the ILO has adopted 128 Conventions and 132 Recommendations
32.9 The International Institute for Labour Studies was established in 1960 as a centre for advanced studies in the social and labour field. The Institute has two broad aims ; education for leadership in the labour and industrial relations and research for developing ideas on labour policy. In addition to research work carried out by the staff of the Institute or under its auspices, the Institute's research conferences bring together researchers, social thinkers and social practitioners from various parts of the world.
32.10 The annual conference of the ILO is an important event. It has been urged before us that preparations for the participation of our country in the annual conference need improvement. The conference takes place in June every year. Agenda items for the conference are known well in advance. We fed that it should be possible to be better equipped for the country's participation in it, though in the conference itself each group has a separate identity. The choice of delegates should be made much ahead of time. A preparatory meeting, convened by the Labour Minister with the participation of all delegates and advisers to discuss the agenda items, could help the participants to evolve the stand that our delegates should take, Employers' and workers' representatives operating in their respective groups could benefit from such discussions and so would Government representatives in understanding the views of
employers and workers According to the present arrangements, each delegate is allowed two advisers irrespective of the complexity of problems discussed in the Conference. We recognise the need to limit the size of delegations to be sent abroad because of difficulties of foreign exchange but feel that a more flexible approach in this matter is called for. It should be possible to increase the strength of the delegation taking into account the complexity of the subjects to be discussed in the Conference.
Principles of Social Justice
32.11 In assessing the international obligations of our country, a basic fact to be kept in mind is the dose association which has been maintained by India with the ILO and the part played by our representatives in shaping its Conventions and Recommendations. In the fifty years of its existence, the ILO has worked consistently for the achievement of "universal and lasting peace", which in the words of the Preamble to the lLO's Constitution, "can be established only if it is based upon social justice". The Preamble to our own Constitution also lays down the objective of establishing Justice— Social, Economic and Political', 'Social Justice' eludes definition and is ambivalent of description in the international context. The principal function of the ILO in its quest for social justice has been to safeguard the rights and promote the well-being of working people all over the world. With the ILO, well-bring is not a paternalistic concept ; it has to be secured through the upholding of the principles of freedom, individual dignity and liberty without which social justice tends to become charity. The Fundamental Rights guaranteed in our Constitution and the Directive Principles of State Policy, to which we have made reference earlier, between them explain the influence which the lLO's Charter has exercised on this country.
32.12 In all its activities the ILO has advocated conciliation and compromise among its three constituents—Governments, employers and workers. It is the principle of tripartite co-operation that has provided strength to the ILO. The principle pre-supposes that social justice can be achieved without class struggle or class conflict. The parties can always enter into a meaningful dialogue and discuss problems in a spirit of tolerance with a view to evolving a workable consensus. We, in India, have been considerably influenced by this principle of "tripartism" in the labour field, particularly during the last twenty five years. As already pointed out, it is now at the very core of many labour practices.
32.13 Our cooperation with the ILO should not end here and indeed it does not. If India has participated in evolving an international programme, it should be her responsibility to associate actively in seeing it through. In the early fifties, the ILO started a wide range of operational programmes to promote economic progress in the developing countries. This is the one area on which our delegates, irrespective of the group to which they may belong, have been laying constant emphasis. With the increase in the ILO membership in recent years, by the addition to it of a number of developing countries, our delegates have been pressing the ILO to move faster in this direction. Even as late as last year, in addressing the International Labour Conference, the leader of the Indian delegation stated :
"I very much hope that during the coming years the lLO's principal activities will be directed towards the promotion of economic development, without which we cannot ensure humane labour conditions. Human rights can never be a matter of conferment by legal formulation. They must grow out of the economic and social environment and it is in the creation of this environment that the ILO must make its maximum contribution."1
32.14 India has benefited by the lLO's programmes of technical cooperation, particularly from 1952 onwards. In 1951 the ILO and the Government of India concluded a basic agreement for the provision of technical assistance mainly in the form of experts and fellowships. Under this Programme, 61 ILO experts have been made available to India and 169 Indian nationals have been provided fellowships for study abroad up to the end of 1968. The experts sent by the ILO covered the fields of social security, productivity, training within industry, employment information and counselling, vocational training, training of craft instructors, industrial relations, workers' education, industrial hygiene, mines safety, management development, industrial physiology, industrial engineering, etc. India has also received assistance
1 Report of the Indian Government Delegation to the 52nd session of the International Labour Conference (Geneva, June, 1968), page 25.
in the form of 9 U.N. Special Fund Projects with the ILO as the Executing Agency. The purpose of these projects is to assist the Government of India in its industrial expansion programme envisaged under Five Year Plans. These projects include the setting up of (i) five Central Training Institutes to meet the expanding needs of trained Craft Instructors, (ii) three Regional Labour Institutes for education, research and training in labour and allied problems, (iii) the Central Mining Research Station for the promotion of health, safety and efficiency of workers in mines, (iv) a National Institute for training in Industrial Engineering for training executives in industrial engineering techniques, methods and practices, and (v) a pilot institute for training and advisory services in the design and construction of moulds, dies and tools for the plastic pressing and other industries. In June, 1967, the following three new projects for India were approved by the U.N. Special Fund with the ILO as the Executing Agency :
(a) National Apprenticeship Scheme; (b) Advanced Vocational Training Institute ; and (c) Tool Room Centre.
32.15 In recognition of the fact that such assistance can be a two-way traffic, India while receiving help from other countries through the ILO, has offered assistance to the international community. She has provided training facilities for many Asian students on ILO fellowships ; many Indians are working as staff members of the ILO at its headquarters in Geneva, and many more have taken field assignments in the ILO technical cooperation projects throughout the world. There is however considerable scope for improving this two-way traffic.
World Employment Programme
32.16 The account of the activities of the ILO will be incomplete if note is not taken of the programmes it proposes to develop in the coming years, programmes which appear to us of special significance. In this year of its fiftieth anniversary, the ILO proposes to launch a World Employment Programme (WEP) with the active cooperation of other international organisations. The aim of this Programme is to provide member-States with advice and practical assistance in devising policies that will increase the amount of productive employment available, thereby reducing unemployment and under-employment. The work on the WEP will be done on a regional basis. Already steps have been taken for the formulation of an Asian Manpower Plan, an admittedly complex component of the WEP. A characteristic feature of economic development in many Asian countries with a large population base is their inability to generate employment opportunities commensurate with the growth in population. The primary objective of the Asian Manpower Plan is to help countries of the Asian Region achieve higher levels of productive employment and to develop the corresponding skills. It is designed to promote a systematic region-wide effort along two mutually re-in-forcing lines—one national and the other regional. It is expected that the information and experience of different countries in this field would be available to the regional efforts, while the regional analysis will feed back material and ideas to the national machinery. It is a two-way traffic. The Plan would thus stimulate, facilitate and coordinate active national employment policies—the main emphasis being on policies for medium and long-term problems of employment. It is also its object to estimate the magnitude of international support required for the programme. While such exercises have been going on in every country, the ILO expects the Asian Manpower Plan to provide an integrated picture to emerge, through a better-focus on the employment needs and the develop mental outlays required therefore. The WEP goes a stage further. It envisages, within its resources availabilities, a long-term action programme for the ILO in which the main emphasis would be on employment-oriented development. This again is an activity which is close to our programmes of development; in fact, among the developing countries having a large population and working within a democratic framework, India has been the first to think of its development and planning in terms of its manpower and employment problems. We expect that the international community will benefit by India's experience as much as she would like to benefit from similar experience elsewhere.
Problems of Youth
32.17 The ILO proposes to devote increasing attention to the problems of growing unrest among the youth mainly in the light of provisions for formal schooling with subsequent technical or technological bias. The query that the ILO has posed to itself is, "Docs training today prepare young people for the enjoyment of the rights and assumption of the responsibilities in the complex world of today ?" This again is a topical problem the world over. To us it has a familiar ring in the context of unrest among the youth for which many remedies are being offered. The problems of youth will diner according to the state of affluence in the society. We only hope that in analysing the causes, the ILO experts will show an awareness
of the generation gap that separates them from the youth of today. We should profit from any appraisal or action-programme undertaken by the ILO in this important task of building up the country's youth.
32.18 Another area in which the ILO hopes to make a major effort is to identify and attack the basic reasons for man's inability to live in peace with people of different origins, races, religions and backgrounds. The struggle for social justice means struggle for elimination of all forms of discrimination. Indian delegates to the International Labour Conferences have been championing this cause; in fact, this has been one of our important contributions. The renewed emphasis on this programme is also in line with what we, as a country, have been urging at international forums.
32.19 The oldest and one of the most important functions of the ILO has been to set labour standards through the Conventions adopted by it. Before a Convention is adopted, a full debate takes place in a committee of the Conference, as a prelude to fuller discussion in the Conference. Usually the debate is in two stages. The first is devoted to the analysis of the problem and to reach a decision as to the need for an international instrument. The second Stage is taken up with the adoption of the appropriate instrument.
32.20 Acceptance of a Convention by the International Labour Conference places an obligation on Governments of the member-State to present the Convention within a specified time-limit (18 months for a Federal State) to the competent legislative body, in our case the Parliament, indicating the action taken or proposed to be taken. It is open to Government not to ratify a Convention ; but the Government has to justify its stand before the legislature. A member-State can refuse to ratify a Convention, but if it wants to ratify it, it has to do so in full. Generally, after ratification takes place, the Convention is given effect to through a new enactment, a modification in the existing law or a change in the administrative practices and procedures. The instrument of ratification is to be deposited with the International Labour Office. Information on measures taken in pursuance of the ratified Convention has to be conveyed to that office through annual reports. The process does not end there. The reports sent by member-States are examined by an independent Committee of Experts on Application of Conventions and Recommendations to ensure compliance. The report of this Committee is a subject matter of debate in the International Labour Conference. This shows how diligently the ILO guards the observance of Conventions. A Recommendation, on the other hand, contains provisions which are only in the nature of guiding principles for national action, They may be implemented progressively and in parts.
Ratification of Conventions by India
32.21 Compliance with international labour standards cannot be judged merely by the number of Conventions a country ratifies. This is because there can be constitutional and administrative difficulties in a formal ratification. The impact of the Conventions on labour legislation in our country far exceeds that warranted by the number of formal ratifications. Even so, it is useful to examine the state of ratification of Conventions. Of the 128 Conventions, 5 have replaced old ones which are no longer open to ratification. 9 Conventions relate to Indigenous Workers or Non-Metropolitan Territories ; these are not applicable to India. Another group of 23 unratified Conventions, mostly relating to seamen, depend for their ratification upon arrangements with other countries, mainly the U.K. because a number of Indian seamen serve on British ships. An informal tripartite committee has been set up in the Ministry of Transport and Shipping to review the possibility of ratification of these Conventions. This leaves 91 Conventions, out of which India has ratified 30. We have been informed by the Department of Labour and Employment that out of the balance of 61 Conventions, 15 are considered to be impracticable of ratification under present conditions. These 15 Conventions deal mostly with agricultural labour (e.g. sickness, old-age and invalidity insurance in agriculture) and with fishermen (e.g. medical examination, minimum age of fishermen). The basic requirements of some of the remaining 46 Conventions, we are assured, are being implemented, though formal ratification has not been found practicable because of their wide coverage. In some others, technical and administrative difficulties that have cropped up stand in the way of ratification. Government has set up a standing tripartite Committee on Conventions which systematically reviews the position in respect of unratified Conventions and explores the possibilities for their ratification. We understand that there has been a shift in emphasis in our country from formal ratification of Conventions to implementation of their basic provisions. The earlier practice of ratifying the Convention
first, followed by the necessary measures for implementing the provisions has been discontinued. The official policy seems to be to move progressively towards implementation of the standards embodied in the instruments without attaching much significance to formal ratification.
32.22 While this will give the substance of privileges of an international instrument, there is something to be said in favour of formal ratifications. We recommend that the Government should, over a period, seek to ratify the Conventions which may have been held up because of technical and administrative difficulties. It is possible that as we develop our economy, some of these difficulties will be overcome.
32.23 Of the 30 Conventions ratified by India (Annexure I), 11 were ratified prior to 1930, 4 between 1930 and Independence, and 15 after Independence. Labour being a subject on the 'Concurrent List' in our Constitution, ratification of a Convention often involves action on the part of individual State Governments. The Central Government has therefore to act in unison with the States. This has some implications in the context of differences in political persuasion of the Central and State Governments. We hope that these political differences will not introduce difficulties in improving labour standards which is the main object of the Conventions.
32.24 The seven Conventions which deal with fundamental human rights are regarded as particularly important. These are the Conventions regarding: (i) Right of Association (Agriculture), (ii) Discrimination (Employment and Occupation), (iii) Equal Remuneration, (iv) Forced Labour, (v) Abolition of Forced Labour, (vi) Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organise, and (vii) Right to Organise and Collective Bargaining. From time to time the ILO has been making urgent appeals to the member countries to ratify them. A special appeal was also made to ratify them before 1968, which was the International Year for Human Rights.
32.25 India has ratified the first four and the others have remained unratified. The Convention on Abolition of Forced Labour totally prohibits compulsory labour ; its ratification would prevent the State Governments from requisitioning labour even in emergencies like scarcities, famines or floods. The Convention concerning Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to organise has not been formally ratified though we ought to add that the freedom to form associations or unions is one of the fundamental rights guaranteed by Article 19(l)(c) of our Constitution. The Convention envisages complete non-interference by public authorities in the affairs of trade unions of all workers, except those engaged in armed forces and police. The Trade Unions Act, 1926, has certain restrictive provisions regarding the number of outsiders on the executives of unions and gives powers to the Registrar of Trade Unions to look into the records of unions. Also, according to rules framed by Government, it is incumbent on associations of Government employees not to have outsiders on their executives and not to affiliate themselves with any outside body or any confederation of Government employees not recognised by Government. It is the view of the Government of India that these restrictive measures are necessary under present conditions. The Convention concerning the Application of the Principles of the Right to Organise and to Bargain Collectively, poses similar difficulties which are reported to be under consideration of the Government. We believe that the implementation of the relevant recommendations made by us in this regard will necessitate a re-assessment of the situation by Government in the years to come.
Observance of Ratified Conventions
32.26 We referred earlier1 to the Expert Committee on Application of Conventions and Recommendations which reports to the Inter-national Labour Conference on the manner the ratified Conventions are observed by member-States. Our country has been unable to convince the Committee on two issues. India has been informed by the Committee that some of the Acts empowering the Panchyats to requisition labour in emergencies contravenes the provisions of the 'Forced Labour' Convention. We believe that 'Forced labour' is a harsh description for the activities which public authorities undertake during emergencies. In regard to the 'Equal Remuneration' Convention the Expert Committee has expressed doubts whether existing differentials in our wage-rates for men and women are due solely to differences in output. We have discussed this point elsewhere in some detail and come to the conclusion that the position in this regard is somewhat obscure. The objection of the Expert Committee is fully borne out by the evidence before us in terms of the full requirements of the Convention.
1 Para 32.20.
32.27 The Convention which envisages elimination of discrimination in the field of employment and occupation on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth or residence was ratified on the strength of the constitutional provisions providing for equality of opportunity as one of the fundamental rights of citizens. We have been told that the policy of non-discrimination in employment opportunities is pursued fully in public employment and has been accepted by the all-India organisations of employers and of workers in regard to employments in the private sector.
32.28 As stated earlier, the ILO has so far adopted 132 Recommendations. Of these, 5 relating to Indigenous Workers or Social Policy in Dependent Territories are not applicable to India. Another 16 are such that their provisions have either become out-dated or have no relevance at present. Of the remaining 111, we have fully implemented 31 (Annexure II), one is under examination and 66 are at different stages of implementation. The remaining 13 are considered to be not practicable for implementation at present. Among the 66 Recommendations at different stages of implementation, the important ones are : Lead Poisoning (Women and Children), Labour Inspection (Health Services), Hours of Work (Inland Navigation, Hotels, Theatres, Hospitals, Sea, etc.), Minimum Wage Fixing Machinery (Agriculture), Employment Policy, Conditions of Employment of Young Persons (Underground Work). The 13 Recommendations which are not considered practicable of implementation at present relate to Unemployment and Unemployment Provision, Hours of work (Fishing), Unemployment Insurance (Seamen), Social Insurance and Holidays with Pay (Agriculture), Minimum Age (Family Undertakings and Underground Work), Social Security and Medical Care for Dependents (Seafarers), Employment Injury Benefits and Invalidity, Old Age and Survivors' Benefits. The latest Recommendation in the series adopted in the 1968 session of the International Labour Conference concerning the improvement of conditions of life and work of tenants, share-croppers and similar categories of agricultural workers, is under examination by the Government.
32.29 Because the ILO Conventions lay down international labour standards, they cannot and do not take into account conditions peculiar to any country. The Conventions are not at all flexible; once ratified, they have to be implemented in full with all their legalistic implications but without leaving freedom of action on the part of national governments. Apart from these basic difficulties, there is another which is peculiar to countries with a federal structure with labour on the Concurrent List. We note that the USA with significantly higher labour standards, has ratified only 7 Conventions, almost all of them relating to seamen, a subject exclusively within the federal jurisdiction. They have not touched even a single Convention which may introduce conflicts in Federal-State relations. The position in Australia is almost similar. In this connection, the Conference of Asian Labour Ministers held in New Delhi in January, 1969, declared as follows :
"The Conference takes this opportunity to invite the attention of the ILO to the need for a review of some of the existing ILO Conventions with reference to their consistency with the needs and realities in the Asian countries, and to point out that if these member-States are to participate in the various ILO Conferences in a more meaningful and effective way, it is necessary to ensure that the subjects coming up for consideration at the International Labour Conferences and the standards proposed are of more direct relevance to the needs and conditions of the majority of the developing countries of the world."
32.30 International obligations which devolve on India as a result of our long association with the ILO have to be discharged in several directions : (i) adopting the aims and objects of the ILO for national action ; (ii) cooperating at the international and regional levels in the programmes of the ILO; and (iii) progressive implementation of the standards set up by the ILO. We feel that we have made adequate progress in all these directions and we hope that this process will gain momentum in future. Though there are difficulties in implementing many of the Conventions/Recommendations, it will give the working class in the country psychological satisfaction if Government declares its readiness to ratify and implement them to the satisfaction of the lLO's Expert Committee on the Application of Conventions and Recommendations.
ANNEXURE I (Ref. para 32.23)
Statement indicating the ILO Conventions ratified by India and the Dates of Registration of their ratification
|Title of Convention||Date of registration of ratification|
|1.||No. 1 Hours of Work (Industry), Convention, 1919 .......||14-7-1921|
|*2.||No. 2 Unemployment Convention, 1919||14-7.1921|
|3.||No. 4 Night Work (Women) Convention, 1919 ........||14-7-1921|
|4.||No. 5 Minimum Age (Industry) Convention, 1919 .||9-9-1955|
|5.||No. 6 Night Work of Young Persons (Industry) Convention, 1919 .....||14-7-1921|
|6.||No. 11 Right of Association (Agriculture) Convention, 1921 .||11-5-1923|
|7.||No. 14 Weekly Rest (Industry) Convention, 1921 . . -. . . '||11-5-1923|
|8.||No. 15 Minimum Age (Trimmers and Stokers) Convention, 1921 .....||20-11-1922|
|9.||No. 16 Medical Examination of Young Persons (Sea) Convention, 1921 ....||20-11-1922|
|10.||No. 18 Workmen's Compensation (Occupational Diseases) Convention, 1925||30-9-1927|
|11.||No. 19 Equality of Treatment (Accident Compensation) Convention, 1925||30-9-1927|
|12.||No. 21 Inspection of Emigrant Convention, 1926 ........||14-1-1928|
|13.||No. 22 Seamen's Articles of Agreement Convention, 1928||31-10-1932|
|14.||No. 26 Minimum-Wage Fixing Machinery Convention, 1928 .....||10-1-1955|
|15.||No. 27 Marking of Weight (Packages Transported by Vessels) Convention, 1929||7-9-1931|
|16.||No. 29 Forced Labour Convention, 1930 .........||30-11-1954|
|17.||No. 32 Protection Against Accidents (Dockers) Convention (Revised), 1932||10-2-1947|
|18.||No. 41 Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1934 ......||22-11-1935|
|19.||No. 45 Underground Work (Women) Convention, 1935 ......||25-3.1938|
|20.||No. 80 Final Articles Revision Convention, 1946 ........||17-11.47|
|21.||No. 81 Labour Inspection Convention, 1947 ........||7-4-1949|
|22.||No. 88 Employment Service Convention, 1948 ........||24-6-1959|
|23.||No. 89 Night Work (Women) Convention (Revised), 1948 ......||27-2-1950|
|24.||No. 90 Night Work of Young Persons (Industry) Convention (Revised), 1948 .||27-2-1950|
|25.||No. 100 Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 ........||25-9-1958|
|26.||No. 107 Indigenous and Tribal Populations Convention, 1957 ......||29-9-1958|
|27.||No. 111 Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 . .||3-6-1960|
|28.||No. 116 Final Articles Revision Convention, 1961 . . . .||22-6-1962|
|29.||No. 42 Workmen's Compensation (Occupational Diseases) Convention (Revised), 1934||13-1-1964|
|30.||No. 118 Equality of Treatment (Social Security) Convention, 1962 ....||19-8-1964|
|(Ratification since denounced.|
ANNEXURE II (Ref. para 32.28)
ILO Recommendations which have been fully implemented by India
1. R. No. 2 —Reciprocity of Treatment.
2. R. No. 6 —White Phosphorus.
3. R. No. 9 —National Seamen's Codes
4. R. No. 20 —Labour Inspection.
5. R. No. 24 —Workmen's Compensation (Occupational Diseases).
6. R. No. 25 —Equalthe international labour scene. The Annual Conference sets normative standards on important matters such as regulation of hours of work and weekly rest in industry, equal remuneration for equal work, abolition of forced labour and discrimination in employme4 —Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Consultation of Organisations.
10. R No. 35 —Forced Labour (Indirect Compulsion).
11. R No. 36 —Forced Labour (Regulation).
12. R. Ho. 40 —Protection against Accidents (Dockers) Reciprocity.
13. R. No. 48 —Seamen's Welfare in Ports.
14. R. No. 50 —Public Works (International Cooperation).
15. R. No. 68 —Social Security (Armed Forces).
16. R No. 78 —Bedding, Mess Utensils and Miscellaneous Provisions (Ships Crews).
17. R. No. 81—Labour Inspection.
18. R. No. 82 —Labour Inspection (Mining & Transport).
19. R. No. 90 —Equal Remuneration.
20. R. No. 92 —Voluntary Conciliation & Arbitration.
21. R. No. 94—Cooperation at the Level of Undertaking.
22. R. No. 96 —Minimum Age (Coal Mines).
23. R. No. 102—Welfare Facilities.
24. R. No. 104—Indigenous & Tribal Populations.
25. R. No. 105—Ships' Medicine Chests.
26. R. No. 106—Medical Advice at Sea.
27. R. No. 107—Seafarers' Engagement. (Foreign Vessels).
28. R. No. 108—Social Conditions & Safety (Seafarers).
29. R. No. 111—Discrimination (Employment and Occupation).
30. R. No. 113—Consultation (Industrial and National Levels.
31. R. No. 130—Examination of Grievances.