Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
The system of recruitment for almost all the plantations in the South is through labour suppliers, called kanganis or maistries, who receive from the planters loans free of interest from which they advance money to individual labourers or families wishing to go to the estates. These advances are debited to the labourers' account and are recovered during the period of their employment. The amount of the advances varies in different districts, but is estimated at an average of Rs. 15 for each labourer. Plantation labour in the South, like factory labour, is migratory in character and returns to its village every year for periods of from 1 to 3 months and in some areas even twice or three times in the year. But there is a marked tendency to return year after year to the same estate. According to the estimate of the United Planters' Association of Southern India, the percentage of workers who returns to the same estate varies from 60 to 90.