Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
We have now completed our endeavour to survey working conditions in the different branches of industrial activity. This and the three following chapters deal with matters affecting the standard of life of the industrial worker. The present chapter is concerned mainly with his income. After discussing the adequacy of the material available, an attempt is made to give an indication of the wage levels in different industries and centres. Some observations are added on individual and family earnings and on the expenditure of the family. We then pass to the discussion of methods of raising the standard of living, which is shown to involve the raising of the standards of efficiency, of earnings and of health and welfare. Numerous methods of increasing efficiency have been discussed in previous chapters, and health and housing are treated in subsequent chapters. The latter part of this chapter is consequently devoted mainly to the discussion of possible methods first of enhancing earnings, and secondly of making them more effective. Here, we deal under the first head with the direct raising of wages by employers and then with the fixing of minimum wages, adding some observations on the standardisation of wages in the leading industries. The prevalence of deductions from wages and their regulation are also reviewed. Under the second head, we deal with the reduction of expenditure on drink, leaving the important question of reducing the burden of indebtedness for the following chapter.