Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
It is relevant to observe in this connection that the overworking of operatives is specially associated with cotton-ginning factories, and in this industry there are in several important areas more factories than are required to dispose of the crop. The factory owners have combined to form pools in most areas, in order to regulate the distribution of work and of profits. To quote the Indian Cotton Committee of 1919 " the result has frequently been that new ginning and pressing factories, which have never worked and were never intended to work, have been erected in places already over-supplied ". A number of factories stand idle in all but an exceptional year, while others may he used in rotation, and there is a tendency to concentrate work in some areas into too few factories. As a result, the exigencies of the industry may appear to require long hours, when actually there is no such necessity. In one province where this custom is prevalent, some employers have instituted an 18 hours' day with two hours' interval, a separate shift of workers being entered against the extra 6 hours. There is, unfortunately, reason to believe that in many factories the extra shift is not engaged, detection being evaded by false registers or the closing down of the factory on the news of the impending visit of an inspector. The Cotton Committee recommended that, in any district where factories were kept closed, no night work should be allowed in any circumstances. We admit the force of this recommendation, but we recognise that legitimate centralisation is in the best interests of the industry and we do not wish to advocate any measures calculated to prevent developments in this direction. For the abuses to which pooling gives rise, as for other evils, the proper remedy is the provision of an adequate inspecting staff.