Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
In the jute mills of Bengal hours of work have been regulated for many years by the Indian Jute Mills Association, which includes nearly all the employers. Since the end of the war, the mills in the membership of the Association, to meet the requirements of trade, have not worked more than an average of five days per week, except for nine months in 1920 and the twelve months ended 30th June 1930. With the exception of the latter period, the associated mills since April 1921 have been working 54 hours per week and since July 1930 for only three weeks out of every four. When working 54 hours, single shift mills run five days, but mills working under the multiple shift system (a rapidly diminishing number) run four days of 13 1/2 hours, thereby limiting the hours of individual operatives to 44 weekly. Even during the last year's spell of 60 hour working, the hours of operatives in the multiple shift mills, which worked four days and five days in alternate weeks, were limited to 44 hours in one week of the fortnight and 55 in the other. In view of the fact that jute mills generally have had only twelve months' experience of more than 54 hour working during the past ten years, it is interesting to note that the Indian Jute Mills Association observe:—
" The restriction under the Factories Act to a sixty hour week has, undoubtedly, been very beneficial to labour. Workers have more leisure, especially at week-ends, and general efficiency has been considerably increased. The restriction has had little or no effect on the jute industry, the increase in the efficiency of the workers making up for the restriction in working hours."