Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
One of the points stressed before us by employers in this industry was the substantial difference between the nominal hours and the hours of actual work. The point emphasised was that, although in practically every case the operative is nominally working for 10 hours, he spends a considerable part of his time in the compound smoking, loitering or eating his meals. We were given a number of estimates of the hours of actual work during the day. The representatives of the Ahmedabad Millowners' Association placed this at 7 hours, and the representatives of the Bombay Millowners' Association at 8 to 8 1/2 hours. An Association of textile managers in Bombay estimated the extent of working time spent outside the factory at 2 hours daily, and the same figure was given by an agent of an up-country mill. In Cawnpore, the leading textile employers estimated actual hours of work at 8 to 8 1/2 daily. We are not in a position to confirm or to question the actual figures, but we do not doubt the main fact that a considerable portion of the day is not spent at the machine. In Bombay particularly, the visitor is struck by the large number of men who can be found outside the factory building at almost any hour of the day. Thus meals are generally taken, not during the statutory interval, which is inconveniently placed for the purpose, but during the nominal working hours. During the unauthorised periods of rest work is carried on either by other operatives undertaking it in addition to their own, or by extra workers definitely engaged for the purpose.