Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
Between 1875 and 1908 factory legislation was the subject of investigation by four Commissions or Committees, and particular questions concerning factory labour have come under review, either locally or generally, at different times before and after 1908. Factories Acts were passed in 1881, 1891, 1911, 1922, 1923 and 1926, and the present law is derived from the last four Acts. As few of the more important provisions now in force go back earlier than 1922, we confine ourselves to references to the history of the more important provisions as they come under discussion. Adult hours are ordinarily restricted to 11 per day and 60 per week. So far as women are concerned, the daily limit dates from 1891. In the case of men, a daily limit of 12 hours for textile factories was introduced in 1911, and this limit was reduced to 11 hours and extended to non-textile factories in 1922, when the more important weekly limit of 60 hours was introduced. The latter limitation was based on a special provision relating to India in the International Labour Convention dealing with hours of work, which was adopted at Washington in 1919 and ratified by India in 1921; but the operatives in some of the leading centres had secured a 60 hour week before it was embodied in the law, and employers generally advocated or consented to its introduction. The special article relating to India in the Washington Convention concludes with the words, " further provisions limiting the hours of work in India shall be considered at a future meeting of the General Conference."