Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
We now turn to questions relating to holidays and leave. The position is complicated by the partial application of the Fundamental Rules and the introduction of various sets of leave periods that, differ, not only between railway and railway but also between similar departments in the same railway. The distinctions drawn between higher and lower grades are very marked, as also are those between monthly and daily-rated servants. In the large workshops where, as a rule, labourers are on daily rates of pay, it is customary to allow workers about 15 holidays on full pay: on one railway the number falls as low as 6, in another it rises to 20, and in yet another regular attendance may result in 29 holidays on full pay, in addition to the prescribed weekly rest day and some local holidays for which no pay is given. In one large workshop workers employed on monthly rates have leave determined according to scales of pay; a worker of one year's service drawing less than Rs. 21 monthly is not eligible for leave, but in common with others gets 15 holidays without deduction of pay; a worker in receipt of Rs. 45 monthly or over is eligible for 15 days' casual leave annually on full pay, one day's privilege leave on full pay for eleven days' duty, sick leave on half pay and special leave not exceeding six months on half pay. Yet in a similar large workshop not many miles away under the same administration, the same type of worker earning Rs. 45 monthly or over is not entitled to leave but gets 15 holidays. Other railway workers also are said to be allowed gazetted holidays according to the exigencies of the service, which in effect means that they are not allowed to persons whose duties are connected with the movement of trains. To compensate for this, labourers employed in sheds and train-examining stations, station menials and others usually placed on the same footing as workshop employees, are entitled to about 15 days' casual leave in lieu of holidays; but, owing to the lack of reserve and other reasons, such leave is not always obtainable. Indeed, it is evident that many workers never receive any leave, although their duties require them to be on call every day of the year. On state-managed railways, several classes of monthly-rated menials earn leave under the Fundamental Rules, subject however to the condition that ' no extra cost' is imposed on the State. Yet on one of these railways, formerly under company management, office menials of one year's service continue, under the old rules which were modelled on the Fundamental Leave Rules, to be entitled to a month's leave on full pay, and other members of the menial staff are entitled to the leave privileges accorded to subordinate staff.