Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
The areas occupied by the working classes in Ahmedabad present pictures of terrible squalor. Nearly 92% of the houses are one-roomed; they are badly built, insanitary, ill-ventilated and overcrowded, whilst water supplies are altogether inadequate and latrine accommodation is almost entirely wanting. Resulting evils are physical deterioration, high infant mortality and a high general death rate. Thirty-five of the textile mills have provided chawls for about 16% of their employees, but in only one or two cases is the accommodation of a reasonable standard, and sanitary arrangements are frequently inadequate. The quarters built by the Asoka and Calico Mills are perhaps the best. In the former case, a settlement adjacent to the mill provides accommodation in the form of chawls for about 1, 100 out of 2, 500 workers. The chawls, laid out in groups of eight, are interspersed with gardens and trees. One type of house has a single room, a verandah and a courtyard, whilst another and more expensive type consists of two rooms and a verandah. Some years ago the latter Company built a colony of 48 tenements, in which each house contains a room, a kitchen, a bathroom and a common verandah. The lay-out provided open spaces, and gardens and other amenities were intended, but these houses have remained unpopular because of their distance from the town. In several cases the mill operatives will not use the accommodation provided for them and the houses of one mill are regularly occupied by operatives of other mills. The housing conditions of textile workers in Sholapur are much better than in Bombay or Ahmedabad and sub-letting does not exist there to any large extent.