National Commission on Labour (1967)||
8.18 The rapid expansion of training has had its effect on quality. In spite of adequate consultation at every step in framing and implementing the programme, difficulties have been experienced in placing persons who have been trained in the ITIs. If employers do not attach much value to the training facilities in the ITIs, a plausible reason can be that the training provided does not conform to the needs of these undertakings. In certain undertakings, we are told, workers trained in the ITIs are recruited and given further training to suit the needs of the plant. This is as it should be, for after all, a general purpose course, as is provided in the ITI, can only be an entry qualification in a particular trade. The real training has to be on the job. While part of the current unemployment among the ITI trainees may be due to the recent recession, it could also be due to the fact that training imparted to the workers is not what the industry requires, the close liaison between the training institutes and the employers' organisations notwithstanding. We realise that training needs of different industrial units differ from the point of view of quality; for example, the skill required of a blacksmith in a foundry is different from the skill expected of a blacksmith in a shipyard or in the machine tool industry; a carpenter in a shipyard needs skills other than those for a carpenter in the furniture industry and so on. Even so, it appears to us that there should be a closer liaison between employers' organisations and persons who represent these organisations on the trade committees of the NCTVT so that technical training becomes need-based.
8.19 The development of institutional and apprenticeship training facilities during the last 15—20 years has been commendable. The NCTVT is capable of introducing such improvements as are necessary. But workers already employed in factories should also have necessary facilities to improve their skills. We consider that training for improvement of skills is a continuous process and has to pervade throughout the working life. Representatives of employers mentioned to us that adequate facilities for on-the-job training to workers exist in their establishments. Our analyses reveal that the number of establishments which provide for these is small; it is in the interest of employers to train workers to handle their tools and machines properly for increasing the productivity of the unit. Once a worker has been at work for some time, there should be a system of granting him study leave to equip himself for senior levels of responsibility. Only few undertakings provide this facility to workers at present. We feel that this system will help internal promotion and make for better industrial relations. We, therefore, recommend that this practice should be made common in industrial and commercial establishments.
8.20 We also reiterate the recommendation made in the last chapter that units which have large requirements of trained personnel at the lower levels should have a suitable 'tie-up' with the ITIs for the lowest level of skills and with higher institutions of learning for senior positions.
Training Policy and Administration
8.21 In considering the scope and future development of the training programmes, we feel that the main burden of training workers should necessarily be borne by the industry. In the industrially advanced countries, this is the normal method of making a worker useful to the establishment. In most European countries, institutional training plays a secondary role. The State should supplement rather than supplant the activities of employers in this matter. It should step in only in such fields and areas where employers cannot undertake training programmes.
8.22 In view of the present apathy to training shown by employers. State action is necessary in many areas in the country and in several occupations. For instance, the State should meet the growing need for technical personnel in rural areas arising out of electrification of rural areas, use of tractors and other machinery, harnessing of tubewells and other water-lifting devices for irrigation and so on.
8.23 Growth of the economy is reflected in increased construction activity and development of various types of services as an adjunct to industrial progress. In the re-organisation of training programmes, emphasis will also have to be laid on training in such new occupations as may come into existence on account of developmental activities.
8.24 It is important that a proper record be kept of all the sources of training of craftsmen and production process workers to avoid imbalances in demand and supply. To ensure such national manpower budgeting, it is necessary that the total number and types of persons being trained at any point of time should be known, and there should be a system under which all training schemes of employers in the country should be registered. We, therefore, recommend that the State Apprenticeship Adviser should be appointed the Registering Authority for this purpose in each State.
8.25 As in the case of Employment Exchanges, the ITIs were handed over to State Governments in 1956, the DGET retaining only the responsibility of prescribing all-India standards, staffing pattern and pay scales, syllabi and list of equipment, conducting trade tests, training instructors and the like. While the Government of India has made attempts to standardise the training organisations in the States by laying down standards, the State Governments have, over the years, prescribed varying qualifications and scales of pay for the staff of the ITIs. Delegation of powers for purchase of equipment and raw materials also differs in different areas as do arrangements for supervision and inspection of training programmes. Uniformity should be maintained in the quality of performance in this vital scheme,, if only to make the trainees acceptable in all parts of the country. It is, therefore, essential that (i) instructional staff at various levels should have the same minimum qualifications and comparable enhancement prospects and (ii) vocational standards should be uniform in all States.
8.26 Untill 1956, Regional Directors were responsible for running both the Employment Exchanges and the Craftsmen Training Schemes in the States. After the reorganisation of the Employment and Training Services in that year, the work on employment and training has remained under the charge of a single officer in many States. In other States, despite the efforts of the Government of India, State Governments have placed the Craftsmen Training Scheme under either the Department of Industries or the Department of Technical Education, though the employment exchanges have remained under the Department of Labour. This has tended to disturb the collaboration between the two organisations. We understand that in the U.K. and the U.S.A., the policy has been to combine the Training and Employment Service functions under a unified control. These twin organisations have for their objective (a) preparation of manpower in required numbers and quality and (b) maximum utilisation of manpower. We recommend that like the Central Government, the State Government should have both the organisations under the Labour Department.
8.27 There is need to encourage professionalism and to provide opportunities for promotion from the ranks up to the posts of Directors of Employment and Training. This will reduce frequent changes at the top. There is force in the argument that stagnation has set in at the lower level, with consequent deterioration in quality. This requires to be avoided.
8.28 The programmes of institutional and apprenticeship training are gathering momentum and will, in course of time, cover an increasing number of people, industries and commercial establishments. The full impact of these programmes on the public mind is not yet perceptible. Legislators, employers, teachers, public men, parents and youth are not aware of the services provided and the prospects of employment or self-employment which are available to the youth. The part played by the training organisation has not attracted adequate attention. It is imperative that a sustained publicity of the programme and achievements of these services should be organised in order to convey their full importance to the employers and the public.