Royal Commission on Labour in India: Report(1929)||
The supervision of women presents special difficulties. When undertaken, as is generally the case, by male jobbers, it leads to serious abuses and has resulted in representations to the Commission. Where women workers are numerous, they are often under the charge of other women, known commonly as naikins or mukaddamin. This system reduces, but does not always eliminate, the greater evils arising from male supervision.
Too often, however, the naikin has the rapacity of the jobber with even more submissive material on which to exercise it. We recommend that, where women are engaged in substantial numbers, there should invariably be employed at least one educated woman in charge of their welfare and supervision throughout the factory She should be responsible to the labour officer, where there is one, and to the manager where there is not, for the engagement and dismissal of all the female staff, whether permanent or temporary. If naikins are employed they should be under her immediate control. It is important that she should be remunerated on a salary and not on a commission basis, and on a scale likely to attract the right type of woman for work of such responsibility. We found this system in force in one or two large Indian factories with excellent results.